IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbfina/v39y2014icp107-116.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The market microstructure of the European climate exchange

Author

Listed:
  • Mizrach, Bruce
  • Otsubo, Yoichi

Abstract

This paper analyzes the market microstructure of the European Climate Exchange, the largest EU ETS trading venue. The ECX captures 2/3 of the screen traded market in EUA and more than 90% in CER. Volume growth has averaged 277% in EUA between 2005 and 2009 and 724% in CER since 2007. Spreads range from €0.0188 to €0.0406 for EUA and €0.0276 to €0.0796 for CER. The median proportion of the spread due to adverse selection reaches 76% for EUA and 75% for CER. Realized volatility, bid-ask spreads and adverse selection costs decline with verified emission releases. Market impact estimates imply that an average trade will move the EUA market by 1.06 euro centimes and the CER market 1.45. The ECX is providing between 75% and 88% of price discovery for EUA trading and between 64% and 72% for CER. We find imbalances in the order book help predict returns for up to three days. A simple trading strategy that enters the market long or short when the order imbalance is strong is profitable even after accounting for spreads and market impact.

Suggested Citation

  • Mizrach, Bruce & Otsubo, Yoichi, 2014. "The market microstructure of the European climate exchange," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 107-116.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:39:y:2014:i:c:p:107-116
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2013.11.001
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378426613004147
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Martin D.D. Evans & Richard K. Lyons, 2017. "Order Flow and Exchange Rate Dynamics," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Studies in Foreign Exchange Economics, chapter 6, pages 247-290 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. Chung, Kee H. & Li, Mingsheng & McInish, Thomas H., 2005. "Information-based trading, price impact of trades, and trade autocorrelation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1645-1669, July.
    3. Hasbrouck, Joel, 1995. " One Security, Many Markets: Determining the Contributions to Price Discovery," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1175-1199, September.
    4. Figuerola-Ferretti, Isabel & Gonzalo, Jesús, 2010. "Modelling and measuring price discovery in commodity markets," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 158(1), pages 95-107, September.
    5. Glosten, Lawrence R. & Harris, Lawrence E., 1988. "Estimating the components of the bid/ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 123-142, May.
    6. Michael W. Brandt & Kenneth A. Kavajecz, 2004. "Price Discovery in the U.S. Treasury Market: The Impact of Orderflow and Liquidity on the Yield Curve," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(6), pages 2623-2654, December.
    7. Gonzalo, Jesus & Granger, Clive W J, 1995. "Estimation of Common Long-Memory Components in Cointegrated Systems," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(1), pages 27-35, January.
    8. Mizrach, Bruce, 2012. "Integration of the global carbon markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 335-349.
    9. Madhavan, Ananth & Richardson, Matthew & Roomans, Mark, 1997. "Why Do Security Prices Change? A Transaction-Level Analysis of NYSE Stocks," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 1035-1064.
    10. Rime, Dagfinn & Sarno, Lucio & Sojli, Elvira, 2010. "Exchange rate forecasting, order flow and macroeconomic information," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 72-88, January.
    11. Conrad, Christian & Rittler, Daniel & Rotfuß, Waldemar, 2012. "Modeling and explaining the dynamics of European Union Allowance prices at high-frequency," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 316-326.
    12. Kelly David L. & Steigerwald Douglas G, 2004. "Private Information and High-Frequency Stochastic Volatility," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-30, March.
    13. Baillie, Richard T. & Geoffrey Booth, G. & Tse, Yiuman & Zabotina, Tatyana, 2002. "Price discovery and common factor models," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 309-321, July.
    14. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-1335, November.
    15. Chordia, Tarun & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2004. "Order imbalance and individual stock returns: Theory and evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 485-518, June.
    16. Ahn, Hee-Joon & Cai, Jun & Hamao, Yasushi & Ho, Richard Y.K., 2005. "Adverse selection, brokerage coverage, and trading activity on the Tokyo Stock Exchange," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1483-1508, June.
    17. Chordia, Tarun & Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2002. "Order imbalance, liquidity, and market returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 111-130, July.
    18. Riordan, Ryan & Storkenmaier, Andreas & Wagener, Martin & Sarah Zhang, S., 2013. "Public information arrival: Price discovery and liquidity in electronic limit order markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1148-1159.
    19. Rittler, Daniel, 2012. "Price discovery and volatility spillovers in the European Union emissions trading scheme: A high-frequency analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 774-785.
    20. Garbade, Kenneth D & Silber, William L, 1983. "Price Movements and Price Discovery in Futures and Cash Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(2), pages 289-297, May.
    21. Bart Frijns & Aaron Gilbert & Alireza Tourani-Rad, 2008. "Insider Trading, Regulation, And The Components Of The Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 31(3), pages 225-246.
    22. deB. Harris, Frederick H. & McInish, Thomas H. & Wood, Robert A., 2002. "Security price adjustment across exchanges: an investigation of common factor components for Dow stocks," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 277-308, July.
    23. Huang, Roger D & Stoll, Hans R, 1997. "The Components of the Bid-Ask Spread: A General Approach," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 995-1034.
    24. Henry Bryant & Michael Haigh, 2004. "Bid-ask spreads in commodity futures markets," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(13), pages 923-936.
    25. Ben R. Marshall & Nhut H. Nguyen & Nuttawat Visaltanachoti, 2012. "Commodity Liquidity Measurement and Transaction Costs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(2), pages 599-638.
    26. Covrig, Vicentiu & Ng, Lilian, 2004. "Volume autocorrelation, information, and investor trading," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2155-2174, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Iordanis Kalaitzoglou & Boulis Maher Ibrahim, 2010. "Does Order Flow in the European Carbon Allowances Market Reveal Information?," CFI Discussion Papers 1003, Centre for Finance and Investment, Heriot Watt University.
    2. repec:spr:envpol:v:19:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10018-016-0171-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Gbenga Ibikunle & Andros Gregoriou & Naresh R. Pandit, 2013. "Price Discovery and Trading after Hours: New Evidence from the World's Largest Carbon Exchange," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 421-445, November.
    4. Mazza, Paolo & Petitjean, Mikael, 2015. "How integrated is the European carbon derivatives market?," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 18-30.
    5. repec:eee:eneeco:v:63:y:2017:i:c:p:234-247 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Rannou, Yves & Barneto, Pascal, 2016. "Futures trading with information asymmetry and OTC predominance: Another look at the volume/volatility relations in the European carbon markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 159-174.
    7. Koch, Nicolas & Fuss, Sabine & Grosjean, Godefroy & Edenhofer, Ottmar, 2014. "Causes of the EU ETS price drop: Recession, CDM, renewable policies or a bit of everything?—New evidence," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 676-685.
    8. Kalaitzoglou, Iordanis Angelos & Ibrahim, Boulis Maher, 2015. "Liquidity and resolution of uncertainty in the European carbon futures market," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 89-102.
    9. Palao, Fernando & Pardo, Ángel, 2014. "What makes carbon traders cluster their orders?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 158-165.
    10. Philip, Dennis & Shi, Yukun, 2016. "Optimal hedging in carbon emission markets using Markov regime switching models," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1-15.
    11. Ibrahim, Boulis Maher & Kalaitzoglou, Iordanis Angelos, 2016. "Why do carbon prices and price volatility change?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 76-94.
    12. Rannou, Yves, 2017. "Liquidity, information, strategic trading in an electronic order book: New insights from the European carbon markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 779-808.
    13. Bredin, Don & Hyde, Stuart & Muckley, Cal, 2014. "A microstructure analysis of the carbon finance market," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 222-234.
    14. Koch, Nicolas & Grosjean, Godefroy & Fuss, Sabine & Edenhofer, Ottmar, 2016. "Politics matters: Regulatory events as catalysts for price formation under cap-and-trade," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 121-139.
    15. Medina, Vicente & Pardo, Ángel & Pascual, Roberto, 2014. "The timeline of trading frictions in the European carbon market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 378-394.
    16. Koop, Gary & Tole, Lise, 2013. "Modeling the relationship between European carbon permits and certified emission reductions," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 166-181.
    17. Kalaitzoglou, Iordanis & Ibrahim, Boulis Maher, 2013. "Trading patterns in the European carbon market: The role of trading intensity and OTC transactions," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 402-416.
    18. Schultz, Emma & Swieringa, John, 2014. "Catalysts for price discovery in the European Union Emissions Trading System," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 112-122.
    19. Koch, Nicolas & Bassen, Alexander, 2013. "Valuing the carbon exposure of European utilities. The role of fuel mix, permit allocation and replacement investments," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 431-443.
    20. Iordanis Angelos Kalaitzoglou & Boulis Maher Ibrahim, 2015. "Liquidity and resolution of uncertainty in the European carbon futures market," Post-Print hal-01107956, HAL.
    21. Kalaitzoglou, Iordanis & Ibrahim, Boulis M., 2013. "Does order flow in the European Carbon Futures Market reveal information?," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 604-635.
    22. repec:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:6:p:1501-:d:151432 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Nicolas Koch, 2014. "Dynamic linkages among carbon, energy and financial markets: a smooth transition approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(7), pages 715-729, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Carbon; Market microstructure; Bid-ask spread; Information share; Order imbalance;

    JEL classification:

    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:39:y:2014:i:c:p:107-116. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.