IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbfina/v36y2012i4p1244-1253.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Large shareholder diversification, corporate risk taking, and the benefits of changing to differential voting rights

Author

Listed:
  • Bauguess, Scott W.
  • Slovin, Myron B.
  • Sushka, Marie E.

Abstract

We show how the change to differential voting rights allows dominant shareholders to retain control even after selling substantial economic ownership in the firm and diversifying their wealth. This unbundling of cash flow and control rights leads to more dispersed economic ownership and a closer alignment of dominant and dispersed shareholder interests. When insiders sell sizeable amounts of their economic interests, firms increase capital expenditures, strengthen corporate focus, divest non-core operations, and generate superior industry-adjusted performance. The change to differential voting rights both fosters corporate control activity and creates higher takeover premiums that are paid equally to all shareholders.

Suggested Citation

  • Bauguess, Scott W. & Slovin, Myron B. & Sushka, Marie E., 2012. "Large shareholder diversification, corporate risk taking, and the benefits of changing to differential voting rights," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 1244-1253.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:4:p:1244-1253
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2011.11.009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378426611003207
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lehn, Kenneth & Netter, Jeffry & Poulsen, Annette, 1990. "Consolidating corporate control*1: Dual-class recapitalizations versus leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 557-580, October.
    2. Anderson, Ronald C. & Duru, Augustine & Reeb, David M., 2009. "Founders, heirs, and corporate opacity in the United States," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 205-222, May.
    3. Luigi Zingales, 1995. "What Determines the Value of Corporate Votes?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1047-1073.
    4. Paul A. Gompers & Joy Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2010. "Extreme Governance: An Analysis of Dual-Class Firms in the United States," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(3), pages 1051-1088, March.
    5. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    6. Daniel Ferreira & Emanuel Ornelas & John L. Turner, 2015. "Unbundling Ownership and Control," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 1-21, March.
    7. DeAngelo, Harry & Rice, Edward M., 1983. "Antitakeover charter amendments and stockholder wealth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 329-359, April.
    8. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
    9. Lins, Karl V., 2003. "Equity Ownership and Firm Value in Emerging Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(01), pages 159-184, March.
    10. Holderness, Clifford G. & Sheehan, Dennis P., 1988. "The role of majority shareholders in publicly held corporations : An exploratory analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 317-346, January.
    11. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    12. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-1177, December.
    13. Grossman, Sanford J. & Hart, Oliver D., 1988. "One share-one vote and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 175-202, January.
    14. Amihud, Yakov & Lev, Baruch & Travlos, Nickolaos G, 1990. " Corporate Control and the Choice of Investment Financing: The Case of Corporate Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 603-616, June.
    15. Stijn Claessens & Simeon Djankov & Joseph P. H. Fan & Larry H. P. Lang, 2002. "Disentangling the Incentive and Entrenchment Effects of Large Shareholdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2741-2771, December.
    16. repec:hrv:faseco:30747162 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Fausto Panunzi, 1997. "Large Shareholders, Monitoring, and the Value of the Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 693-728.
    18. Chemmanur, Thomas J. & Jiao, Yawen, 2012. "Dual class IPOs: A theoretical analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 305-319.
    19. Easterbrook, Frank H, 1984. "Two Agency-Cost Explanations of Dividends," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(4), pages 650-659, September.
    20. Fama, Eugene F., 1985. "What's different about banks?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 29-39, January.
    21. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Fausto Panunzi, 1998. "Why Higher Takeover Premia Protect Minority Shareholders," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 172-204, February.
    22. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    23. Stulz, ReneM., 1988. "Managerial control of voting rights : Financing policies and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 25-54, January.
    24. Yakov Amihud & Baruch Lev, 1981. "Risk Reduction as a Managerial Motive for Conglomerate Mergers," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(2), pages 605-617, Autumn.
    25. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    26. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation," Scholarly Articles 29407535, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    27. Dimitrov, Valentin & Jain, Prem C., 2006. "Recapitalization of one class of common stock into dual-class: Growth and long-run stock returns," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 342-366, January.
    28. Partch, M. Megan, 1987. "The creation of a class of limited voting common stock and shareholder wealth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 313-339, June.
    29. Slovin, Myron B & Sushka, Marie E, 1993. " Ownership Concentration, Corporate Control Activity, and Firm Value: Evidence from the Death of Inside Blockholders," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1293-1321, September.
    30. Leland, Hayne E & Pyle, David H, 1977. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 371-387, May.
    31. Ronald W. Masulis & Cong Wang & Fei Xie, 2009. "Agency Problems at Dual-Class Companies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(4), pages 1697-1727, August.
    32. Barber, Brad M. & Lyon, John D., 1996. "Detecting abnormal operating performance: The empirical power and specification of test statistics," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 359-399, July.
    33. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
    34. Ruback, Richard S., 1988. "Coercive dual-class exchange offers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 153-173, January.
    35. Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1988. "Corporate governance : Voting rights and majority rules," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 203-235, January.
    36. DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda, 1985. "Managerial ownership of voting rights : A study of public corporations with dual classes of common stock," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 33-69, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ghosh, Chinmoy & Hilliard, James & Petrova, Milena & Phani, B.V., 2016. "Economic consequences of deregulation: Evidence from the removal of voting cap in Indian banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 19-38.
    2. Boubaker, Sabri & Cellier, Alexis & Rouatbi, Wael, 2014. "The sources of shareholder wealth gains from going private transactions: The role of controlling shareholders," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 226-246.
    3. repec:eee:advacc:v:30:y:2014:i:2:p:328-337 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Lauterbach, Beni & Pajuste, Anete, 2015. "The long-term valuation effects of voluntary dual class share unifications," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 171-185.
    5. Howard Bodenhorn, 2014. "Voting Rights, Shareholdings, and Leverage at Nineteenth-Century U.S. Banks," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(2), pages 431-458.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Differential voting rights; One-share-one-vote; Tag-along rights;

    JEL classification:

    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:4:p:1244-1253. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.