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Why do firms issue private equity repeatedly? On the motives and information content of multiple PIPE offerings

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  • Floros, Ioannis V.
  • Sapp, Travis R.A.

Abstract

This study examines why private equity issues tend to be a repeated source of financing for public firms. We test the recent operational needs theory of public equity issuance within the context of repeated private equity issues. We find that repeated PIPE issuers burn through cash quickly and do not reach the standards of information transparency or profitability needed for a successful public equity offering. This has implications for investor composition and the market response to a PIPE. Initial PIPE offerings are characterized by substantial diversity in investor type. In successive transactions firms increasingly rely upon hedge funds, who extract greater price discounts and more often require cash flow rights as opposed to control rights. As firms select a path of repeated PIPEs to raise funds, successive issues become uninformative to the market. We conclude that, for small public firms, the same motive underlies public equity offerings and repeated private equity offerings—an acute need for cash.

Suggested Citation

  • Floros, Ioannis V. & Sapp, Travis R.A., 2012. "Why do firms issue private equity repeatedly? On the motives and information content of multiple PIPE offerings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3469-3481.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:12:p:3469-3481
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.08.001
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Henk Berkman & Michael McKenzie & Patrick Verwijmeren, 2013. "Hole in the Wall: Informed Short Selling ahead of Private Placements," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-153/IV/DSF62, Tinbergen Institute.
    2. Sengupta, Rajdeep & Black, Lamont K. & Floros , Ioannis, 2016. "Raising capital when the going gets tough: U.S. bank equity issuance from 2001 to 2014," Research Working Paper RWP 16-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    3. Chen, Linda H. & Dyl, Edward A. & Jiang, George J. & Juneja, Januj A., 2015. "Risk, illiquidity or marketability: What matters for the discounts on private equity placements?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 41-50.
    4. John, Kose & Mateti, Ravi S. & Vasudevan, Gopala & Amira, Khaled, 2016. "Investor protection and firm value: Evidence from PIPE offerings," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 78-89.
    5. repec:eee:corfin:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:64-83 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Private placements; Hedge funds; Cash balances; Market feedback;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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