IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/corfin/v16y2010i1p104-119.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The choice of equity selling mechanisms: PIPEs versus SEOs

Author

Listed:
  • Chen, Hsuan-Chi
  • Dai, Na
  • Schatzberg, John D.

Abstract

We examine the firm's choice between an SEO and a PIPE, an innovation in follow-on equity selling mechanism seen in the late 1990s. Our primary finding indicates that the rapid rise of the PIPE market fills the capital needs of firms which may not have access to more traditional alternatives. This lack of access is driven mainly by information asymmetry and weak operating performance. We also show that firms are more likely to choose PIPEs when the general market and the firm's stock are performing poorly. Furthermore, we find that selected firms with access to the public market may prefer a PIPE due to specific cost considerations.

Suggested Citation

  • Chen, Hsuan-Chi & Dai, Na & Schatzberg, John D., 2010. "The choice of equity selling mechanisms: PIPEs versus SEOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 104-119, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:16:y:2010:i:1:p:104-119
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0929-1199(09)00055-8
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Butler, Alexander W. & Grullon, Gustavo & Weston, James P., 2005. "Stock Market Liquidity and the Cost of Issuing Equity," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(02), pages 331-348, June.
    2. Ng, Chee K & Smith, Richard L, 1996. " Determinants of Contract Choice: The Use of Warrants to Compensate Underwriters of Seasoned Equity Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 363-380, March.
    3. Altinkilic, Oya & Hansen, Robert S, 2000. "Are There Economies of Scale in Underwriting Fees? Evidence of Rising External Financing Costs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(1), pages 191-218.
    4. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R, 1995. " The New Issues Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 23-51, March.
    5. Hodrick, Laurie Simon, 1999. "Does stock price elasticity affect corporate financial decisions?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 225-256, May.
    6. Wu, YiLin, 2004. "The choice of equity-selling mechanisms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 93-119, October.
    7. David J. Brophy & Paige P. Ouimet & Clemens Sialm, 2009. "Hedge Funds as Investors of Last Resort?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(2), pages 541-574, February.
    8. Autore, Don M. & Kumar, Raman & Shome, Dilip K., 2008. "The revival of shelf-registered corporate equity offerings," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 32-50, February.
    9. Narasimhan Jegadeesh, 2000. "Long-Term Performance of Seasoned Equity Offerings: Benchmark Errors and Biases in Expectations," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 29(3), Fall.
    10. Michael Hertzel & Michael Lemmon & James S. Linck & Lynn Rees, 2002. "Long-Run Performance following Private Placements of Equity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2595-2617, December.
    11. Spiess, D. Katherine & Affleck-Graves, John, 1995. "Underperformance in long-run stock returns following seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 243-267, July.
    12. Shane A. Corwin, 2003. "The Determinants of Underpricing for Seasoned Equity Offers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(5), pages 2249-2279, October.
    13. Altinkilic, Oya & Hansen, Robert S., 2003. "Discounting and underpricing in seasoned equity offers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 285-323, August.
    14. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1978. "Unionism and Wage Rates: A Simultaneous Equations Model with Qualitative and Limited Dependent Variables," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 19(2), pages 415-433, June.
    15. Hertzel, Michael G & Smith, Richard L, 1993. " Market Discounts and Shareholder Gains for Placing Equity Privately," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(2), pages 459-485, June.
    16. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R, 1997. " The Operating Performance of Firms Conducting Seasoned Equity Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 1823-1850, December.
    17. Smith, Richard L, 1987. " The Choice of Issuance Procedure and the Cost of Competitive and Negotiated Underwriting: An Examination of the Impact of Rule 50," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 703-720, July.
    18. Barclay, Michael J. & Holderness, Clifford G. & Sheehan, Dennis P., 2007. "Private placements and managerial entrenchment," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 461-484, September.
    19. Dai, Na, 2007. "Does investor identity matter? An empirical examination of investments by venture capital funds and hedge funds in PIPEs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 538-563, September.
    20. Bernardo Bortolotti & William Megginson & Scott B. Smart, 2008. "The Rise of Accelerated Seasoned Equity Underwritings," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 20(3), pages 35-57.
    21. Mola, Simona & Loughran, Tim, 2004. "Discounting and Clustering in Seasoned Equity Offering Prices," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(01), pages 1-23, March.
    22. Hillion, Pierre & Vermaelen, Theo, 2004. "Death spiral convertibles," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 381-415, February.
    23. Lee, Gemma & Masulis, Ronald W., 2009. "Seasoned equity offerings: Quality of accounting information and expected flotation costs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(3), pages 443-469, June.
    24. Wruck, Karen Hopper, 1989. "Equity ownership concentration and firm value : Evidence from private equity financings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 3-28, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Dahiya, Sandeep & Klapper, Leora & Parthasarathy, Harini & Singer, Dorothe, 2013. "The role of private equity investments in public firms : international evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6484, The World Bank.
    2. Chen, Sheng-Syan & Hsu, Ching-Yu & Huang, Chia-Wei, 2016. "The white squire defense: Evidence from private investments in public equity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 16-35.
    3. K. Stephen Haggard & (Grace) Qing Hao & Ying Jenny Zhang, 2012. "Are hedge funds guilty of manipulative short-selling?," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(11), pages 1048-1066, September.
    4. Ola Bengtsson & Na Dai, 2014. "Financial Contracts in PIPE Offerings: The Role of Expert Placement Agents," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 43(4), pages 795-832, December.
    5. John, Kose & Mateti, Ravi S. & Vasudevan, Gopala & Amira, Khaled, 2016. "Investor protection and firm value: Evidence from PIPE offerings," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 78-89.
    6. Bengtsson, Ola & Dai, Na & Henson, Clifford, 2014. "SEC enforcement in the PIPE market: Actions and consequences," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 213-231.
    7. Seth Armitage & Dionysia Dionysiou & Angelica Gonzalez, 2014. "Are the Discounts in Seasoned Equity Offers Due to Inelastic Demand?," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(5-6), pages 743-772, June.
    8. Haggard, K. Stephen & Zhang, Ying Jenny, 2010. "Foreign issuers in the U.S. PIPE market," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2-3), pages 144-157, July.
    9. Brown, James R. & Floros, Ioannis V., 2012. "Access to private equity and real firm activity: Evidence from PIPEs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 151-165.
    10. repec:bla:acctfi:v:57:y:2017:i:3:p:907-933 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Fonseka, M.M. & Colombage, Sisira R.N. & Tian, Gao-Liang, 2014. "Effects of regulator's announcements, information asymmetry and ownership changes on private equity placements: Evidence from China," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 126-149.
    12. Hsuan-Chi Chen & Sheng-Ching Wu, 2015. "Who Makes the Choice on IPO Underwriting Methods? Issuers Versus Underwriters," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 44(4), pages 753-783, October.
    13. Kathleen Kahle & René M. Stulz, 2016. "Is the U.S. public corporation in trouble?," NBER Working Papers 22857, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Busaba, Walid Y. & Chang, Chun, 2010. "Bookbuilding vs. fixed price revisited: The effect of aftermarket trading," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 370-381, June.
    15. Floros, Ioannis V. & Sapp, Travis R.A., 2012. "Why do firms issue private equity repeatedly? On the motives and information content of multiple PIPE offerings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3469-3481.
    16. Lewis, Craig M. & Verwijmeren, Patrick, 2011. "Convertible security design and contract innovation," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 809-831, September.
    17. Svein olav Krakstad, 2013. "Timing Differences between SEO Methods," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(4), pages 3070-3079.
    18. Chen, An-Sing & Cheng, Lee-Young & Cheng, Kuang-Fu & Chih, Shu-Wei, 2010. "Earnings management, market discounts and the performance of private equity placements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1922-1932, August.
    19. Cécile Carpentier & Jean-François L’Her & Jean-Marc Suret, 2013. "Private investment in small public entities," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 149-168, June.
    20. Dai, Na, 2011. "Monitoring via staging: Evidence from Private investments in public equity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 3417-3431.
    21. repec:eee:corfin:v:45:y:2017:i:c:p:64-83 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Henk Berkman & Michael McKenzie & Patrick Verwijmeren, 2013. "Hole in the Wall: Informed Short Selling ahead of Private Placements," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-153/IV/DSF62, Tinbergen Institute.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:16:y:2010:i:1:p:104-119. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.