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Financial crisis, structure and reform


  • Allen, Franklin
  • Gu, Xian
  • Kowalewski, Oskar


In this study, we examine the relationship between the structure of financial systems and financial crises. Using cross-country data on financial structures and crises, we find that there is a significant short-term reversal in development of the banking sector and the stock market during both bank crises and market crashes, with the corporate bond market moving in the same direction as bank credit. However, the results are significant for countries with market-based financial systems but not for countries with bank-based financial systems. Emerging markets have mainly bank-based financial systems, which may explain why these markets require more time to recover from economic downturns after a financial crisis. Therefore, we argue that governments should emphasize a balanced financial system structure as it helps countries to recover from financial crises more quickly compared with countries that lack such balanced structures.

Suggested Citation

  • Allen, Franklin & Gu, Xian & Kowalewski, Oskar, 2012. "Financial crisis, structure and reform," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2960-2973.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:11:p:2960-2973 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.06.002

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Gu, Xian & Kowalewski, Oskar, 2016. "Creditor rights and the corporate bond market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 215-238.
    2. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Lin, Chun-Wei & Zeng, Jhih-Hong, 2016. "Financial liberalization, insurance market, and the likelihood of financial crises," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 25-51.
    3. Ayala, Diana & Nedeljkovic, Milan & Saborowski, Christian, 2017. "What slice of the pie? The corporate bond market boom in emerging economies," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 16-35.
    4. Hryckiewicz, Aneta & Kozłowski, Łukasz, 2017. "Banking business models and the nature of financial crisis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 1-24.
    5. Pradhan, Rudra P. & Arvin, Mak B. & Hall, John H. & Bahmani, Sahar, 2014. "Causal nexus between economic growth, banking sector development, stock market development, and other macroeconomic variables: The case of ASEAN countries," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 155-173.
    6. Eduardo Corso, 2015. "Ambiguity and portfolio decisions," BCRA Working Paper Series 201567, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department.
    7. Gu, Xian & Kowalewski, Oskar, 2015. "Creditor rights and corporate bond market," MPRA Paper 67022, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Chui, Andy C.W. & Kwok, Chuck C.Y. & (Stephen) Zhou, Gaoguang, 2016. "National culture and the cost of debt," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1-19.
    9. Vithessonthi, Chaiporn, 2014. "The effect of financial market development on bank risk: evidence from Southeast Asian countries," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 249-260.
    10. Hryckiewicz, Aneta & Kozlowski, Lukasz, 2014. "Banking business models and the nature of financial crises," MPRA Paper 64072, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 09 Mar 2015.
    11. Franklin Allen & Laura Bartiloro & Xian Gu & Oskar Kowalewksi, 2016. "Does Economic Structure Determine Financial Structure?," Working Papers 2016-ACF-02, IESEG School of Management.
    12. Ekaterina Dorodnykh, 2014. "Determinants of stock exchange integration: evidence in worldwide perspective," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(2), pages 292 - 316, March.
    13. Andrea Flori & Giuseppe Pappalardo & Michelangelo Puliga & Alessandro Chessa & Fabio Pammolli, 2016. "The Accounting Network: how financial institutions react to systemic crisis," Papers 1605.01976,
    14. repec:jle:journl:165 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Andrés Ramírez Hassan & Javier Pantoja Robayo, 2013. "Co-movements between Latin American and U.S. stock markets: convergence after the financial crisis," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO CIEF 010931, UNIVERSIDAD EAFIT.

    More about this item


    Financial system structure; Financial crises; Financial reform;

    JEL classification:

    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation


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