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Does cross-listing facilitate changes in corporate ownership and control?

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  • Ayyagari, Meghana
  • Doidge, Craig

Abstract

This paper examines whether controlling shareholders of foreign firms use a US cross-listing to facilitate changes in ownership and control. Prior to listing, about three quarters of the firms in our sample have a controlling shareholder. After listing, about half of the controlling shareholders' voting rights decrease, with an average decrease of 24% points that differs significantly from that of the controlling shareholders of benchmark firms that do not cross-list. Large decreases in voting rights are associated with controlling shareholder characteristics, domestic market constraints, and better stock market performance and liquidity. In addition, there is control change in 22% of the firms. Controlling shareholders are more likely to sell control, and are more likely to do so to a foreign buyer, than controlling shareholders of benchmark firms. The results suggest that controlling shareholders who want to sell shares or their control stake can use a US cross-listing to decrease the cost of transferring ownership.

Suggested Citation

  • Ayyagari, Meghana & Doidge, Craig, 2010. "Does cross-listing facilitate changes in corporate ownership and control?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 208-223, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:34:y:2010:i:1:p:208-223
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    2. Pan, Lee-Hsien & Lin, Chien-Ting & Yang, Pei-Chi, 2013. "Corporate governance, growth opportunities, and the choices of cross-listings: The case of Chinese ADRs," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 221-234.
    3. René M. Stulz, 2009. "Securities Laws, Disclosure, and National Capital Markets in the Age of Financial Globalization," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 349-390, May.
    4. Oh, Seungjoon & Ding, Keli & Park, Heungju, 2021. "Cross-listing, foreign independent directors and firm value," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 695-708.
    5. Gilberto Loureiro & Sónia Silva, "undated". "Post-Operating Performance of Cross-Delisted Firms From U.S. Stock Exchanges," NIPE Working Papers 17/2015, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    6. Nicola Cetorelli & Stavros Peristiani, 2015. "Firm Value and Cross Listings: The Impact of Stock Market Prestige," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 8(1), pages 1-31, March.
    7. Visaltanachoti, Nuttawat & Yang, Ting, 2010. "Speed of convergence to market efficiency for NYSE-listed foreign stocks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 594-605, March.
    8. Boubakri, Narjess & Cosset, Jean-Claude & Samet, Anis, 2010. "The choice of ADRs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2077-2095, September.
    9. Esqueda, Omar A. & Jackson, Dave O., 2015. "Cross-listing performance and insider ownership: The experience of U.S. investors," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 32, pages 77-94.
    10. Wendy Rotenberg, 2013. "Mitigation of U.S. Home Bias in the Valuation of Canadian Natural Resource Firms: Choice of Reporting and Transaction Currency," Multinational Finance Journal, Multinational Finance Journal, vol. 17(3-4), pages 201-241, September.
    11. Ayyagari, Meghana & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2012. "Financing of firms in developing countries : lessons from research," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6036, The World Bank.
    12. Tsai, Han-Fang & Lin, Tsui-Jung & Hung, Jung-Hua, 2015. "The effects of the split share structure reform on Chinese listed firms’ leverage decisions," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 86-100.
    13. Esqueda, Omar A., 2017. "Controlling shareholders and market timing: Evidence from cross-listing events," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 12-23.
    14. Rihab Kriaa & Taher Hamza, 2021. "Control dilution of an initial owner post-IPO: the impact of characteristics of ownership structure," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 1-35, March.
    15. Cosset, Jean-Claude & Meknassi, Siham, 2013. "Does cross-listing in the US foster mergers and acquisitions and increase target shareholder wealth?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 54-73.
    16. Karolyi, G. Andrew, 2012. "Corporate governance, agency problems and international cross-listings: A defense of the bonding hypothesis," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 516-547.
    17. Huang, Ying & Jacoby, Gady & Jiang, Christine X., 2016. "The bonding hypothesis and the home market liquidity of Chinese cross-listed stocks," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 146-157.
    18. Amira, Khaled & Muzere, Mark L., 2011. "Competition among stock exchanges for equity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2355-2373, September.
    19. Eichler, Stefan, 2011. "Exchange rate expectations and the pricing of Chinese cross-listed stocks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 443-455, February.
    20. Abdallah, Abed AL-Nasser & Abdallah, Wissam, 2019. "Does cross-listing in the US improve investment efficiency? Evidence from UK firms," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 215-231.
    21. Nattawoot Koowattanatianchai & Kulkunya Prayarach, 2016. "How the ASEAN Exchanges integration affects firms' position on the ASEAN Link and abnormal returns: evidence from Thailand," International Journal of Economics and Business Research, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 11(1), pages 58-82.
    22. Li, Hong, 2019. "Direct overseas listing versus cross-listing: A multivalued treatment effects analysis of Chinese listed firms," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    23. Madura, Jeff & Ngo, Thanh & Viale, Ariel M., 2011. "Convergent synergies in the global market for corporate control," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2468-2478, September.
    24. Stulze, Rene M., 2008. "Securities Laws, Disclosure, and National Capital Markets in the Age of Financial Globalization," Working Paper Series 2008-13, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.

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