Is international diversification really beneficial?
Previous research claims that low constant correlations among international stock indices create substantial risk-reduction from diversification. We contend that only using constant correlations is too simplistic an approach. We examine international diversification by: (1) using conditional correlations, (2) evaluating tail risk, including the effect of skewness and kurtosis, and (3) examining the possible tradeoffs of standard deviation with correlation, skewness, and kurtosis. We show that conclusions concerning diversification based solely on constant correlations across markets can be misleading, since the diversification benefits are time-varying, are affected by non-normality, and depend on the benchmark (country) employed. Finally, tradeoffs do exist between standard deviation and the other risk factors.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Tse, Y. K., 2000.
"A test for constant correlations in a multivariate GARCH model,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 107-127, September.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS programs to replicate Tse's constant correlation GARCH test results," Statistical Software Components RTZ00161, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Tom Doan, . "TSECCTEST: RATS procedure to perform Tse test for constant correlation in MV-GARCH model," Statistical Software Components RTS00214, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Rowland, Patrick F., 1999. "Transaction costs and international portfolio diversification," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 145-170, October.
- Sun, Qian & Yan, Yuxing, 2003. "Skewness persistence with optimal portfolio selection," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1111-1121, June.
- Bali, Turan G. & Mo, Hengyong & Tang, Yi, 2008. "The role of autoregressive conditional skewness and kurtosis in the estimation of conditional VaR," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 269-282, February.
- William Goetzmann & Lingfeng Li & K. Rouwenhorst, 2001.
"Long-Term Global Market Correlations,"
Yale School of Management Working Papers
ysm237, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Jan 2008.
- William N.Goetzmann & Lingfeng Li & K.Geert Rouwenhorst, 2003. "Long-Term Global Market Correlations," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 98, Netherlands Central Bank.
- William N. Goetzmann & Lingfeng Li & K. Geert Rouwenhorst, 2001. "Long-Term Global Market Correlations," NBER Working Papers 8612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heston, Steven L. & Rouwenhorst, K. Geert, 1994. "Does industrial structure explain the benefits of international diversification?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 3-27, August.
- Quaranta, Anna Grazia & Zaffaroni, Alberto, 2008. "Robust optimization of conditional value at risk and portfolio selection," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 2046-2056, October.
- Ehud I. Ronn & Akin Sayrak & Stathis Tompaidis, 2009. "The Impact of Large Changes in Asset Prices on Intra-Market Correlations in the Domestic and International Markets," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 405-436, 08.
- Duong Nguyen & Tribhuvan N. Puri, 2009. "Higher-Order Systematic Comoments and Asset Pricing: New Evidence," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 345-369, 08.
- Antonios Antoniou & Gioia M. Pescetto & Ibrahim Stevens, 2007. "Market-wide and sectoral integration: Evidence from the UK, USA and Europe," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 173-194.
- Engle, Robert, 2002. "Dynamic Conditional Correlation: A Simple Class of Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(3), pages 339-50, July.
- Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
- Vihang Errunza & Ked Hogan & Mao-Wei Hung, 1999. "Can the Gains from International Diversification Be Achieved without Trading Abroad?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 2075-2107, December.
- Longin, Francois & Solnik, Bruno, 1995. "Is the correlation in international equity returns constant: 1960-1990?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-26, February.
- Simkowitz, Michael A. & Beedles, William L., 1978. "Diversification in a Three-Moment World," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(05), pages 927-941, December.
- Chiang, Thomas C. & Jeon, Bang Nam & Li, Huimin, 2007. "Dynamic correlation analysis of financial contagion: Evidence from Asian markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1206-1228, November.
- Lorenzo Cappiello & Robert F. Engle & Kevin Sheppard, 2006.
"Asymmetric Dynamics in the Correlations of Global Equity and Bond Returns,"
Journal of Financial Econometrics,
Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 4(4), pages 537-572.
- Sheppard, Kevin & Cappiello, Lorenzo & Engle, Robert F., 2003. "Asymmetric dynamics in the correlations of global equity and bond returns," Working Paper Series 0204, European Central Bank.
- Monica Billio & Massimiliano Caporin & Michele Gobbo, 2006. "Flexible Dynamic Conditional Correlation multivariate GARCH models for asset allocation," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 2(2), pages 123-130, March.
- Bertoneche, Marc L., 1979. "Spectral analysis of stock market prices," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 201-208, July.
- Robert F. Dittmar, 2002. "Nonlinear Pricing Kernels, Kurtosis Preference, and Evidence from the Cross Section of Equity Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 369-403, 02.
- Matteo M. Pelagatti & Stefania Rondena, 2005.
"Dynamic Conditional Correlation with Elliptical Distributions,"
- Matteo Pelagatti & Stefania Rondena, 2004. "Dynamic Conditional Correlation with Elliptical Distributions," Working Papers 20060508, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Statistica, revised May 2006.
- Bollerslev, Tim, 1990. "Modelling the Coherence in Short-run Nominal Exchange Rates: A Multivariate Generalized ARCH Model," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(3), pages 498-505, August.
- Levy, Haim & Sarnat, Marshall, 1970. "International Diversification of Investment Portfolios," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(4), pages 668-75, September.
- Zakamouline, Valeri & Koekebakker, Steen, 2009. "Portfolio performance evaluation with generalized Sharpe ratios: Beyond the mean and variance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1242-1254, July.
- Shawky, Hany A. & Kuenzel, Rolf & Mikhail, Azmi D., 1997. "International portfolio diversification: a synthesis and an update," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 303-327, December.
- Driessen, Joost & Laeven, Luc, 2007. "International portfolio diversification benefits: Cross-country evidence from a local perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1693-1712, June.
- Chen, Zhiping & Wang, Yi, 2008. "Two-sided coherent risk measures and their application in realistic portfolio optimization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2667-2673, December.
- Rubinstein, Mark E., 1973. "The Fundamental Theorem of Parameter-Preference Security Valuation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(01), pages 61-69, January.
- Garman, Mark B & Klass, Michael J, 1980. "On the Estimation of Security Price Volatilities from Historical Data," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(1), pages 67-78, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:34:y:2010:i:1:p:163-173. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.