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The effectiveness of bank recapitalization policies in Japan


  • Montgomery, Heather
  • Shimizutani, Satoshi


This study examines the effectiveness of bank recapitalization policies in Japan. Based on a reading of the "business revitalization plan" submitted by banks requesting government funds, we identify four primary goals for the capital injection plan in Japan: (1) to increase the bank capital ratios; (2) to increase write-offs of non-performing loans; (3) to increase lending, in particular to small and medium enterprises, in order to avoid a "credit crunch"; (4) to encourage restructuring. Using a panel of individual bank data, we empirically estimate the effectiveness of the Japanese government policy of public fund injection in achieving the first three of these stated goals. Our empirical analysis reveals that, in general, the capital injections into the large internationally active banks were more effective than those into the smaller domestic banks in Japan. In addition, the second round capital injection, administered in 1998, was more effective than the first round, administered in 1997. The first capital injection in 1997 mostly served as a stop-gap measure to help the large international banks clear the 8% capital adequacy ratio (BIS ratio) required under the Basel Accord and did not make much contribution to the other policy objectives. The second round of capital injections in 1998 were more effective, boosting capital adequacy ratios for the domestic as well as international banks and supporting other policy objectives as well by stimulating banks to write off bad loans and increase domestic lending, in particular to small and medium enterprises.

Suggested Citation

  • Montgomery, Heather & Shimizutani, Satoshi, 2009. "The effectiveness of bank recapitalization policies in Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-25, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:japwor:v:21:y:2009:i:1:p:1-25

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Wako Watanabe, 2007. "Prudential Regulation and the "Credit Crunch": Evidence from Japan," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(2-3), pages 639-665, March.
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    8. Montgomery, Heather, 2005. "The effect of the Basel Accord on bank portfolios in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 24-36, March.
    9. Hiroshi Nakaso, 1999. "Recent banking sector reforms in Japan," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 1-7.
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    Cited by:

    1. Onji, Kazuki & Vera, David & Corbett, Jenny, 2012. "Capital injection, restructuring targets and personnel management: The case of Japanese regional banks," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 495-517.
    2. George E. Halkos & Roman Matousek & Nickolaos G. Tzeremes, 2016. "Pre-evaluating technical efficiency gains from possible mergers and acquisitions: evidence from Japanese regional banks," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 47-77, January.
    3. Montgomery, Heather & Takahashi, Yuki, 2011. "Bank recapitalization in the U.S. - lessons from Japan," MPRA Paper 33147, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Guizani, Brahim & Watanabe, Wako, 2016. "The effects of public capital infusions on banks’ risk-shifting to the deposit insurance system in Japan," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 15-30.
    5. Mary Amiti & David E. Weinstein, 2013. "How Much do Idiosyncratic Bank Shocks Affect Investment? Evidence from Matched Bank-Firm Loan Data," NBER Working Papers 18890, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Amiti, Mary & Weinstein, David E., 2013. "How Much do Bank Shocks Affect Investment? Evidence from Matched Bank-Firm Loan Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 9400, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. João Amador & Arne J. Nagengast, 2015. "The Effect of Bank Shocks on Firm-Level and Aggregate Investment," Working Papers w201515, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    8. Emmanuel C. Mamatzakis & Anh N. Vu, 2017. "The interplay between quantitative easing and risk: the case of the Japanese banking," Working Papers 226, Bank of Greece.
    9. Edirin Jeroh & Emma Okoye, 2015. "Impact Assessment of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 11(5), pages 30-44, October.
    10. Hirofumi Fukuyama & William Weber, 2015. "Measuring Japanese bank performance: a dynamic network DEA approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 249-264, December.
    11. Montgomery, Heather & Takahashi, Yuki, 2014. "The economic consequences of the TARP: The effectiveness of bank recapitalization policies in the U.S," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 49-64.
    12. Mamatzakis, Emmanuel & Matousek, Roman & Vu, Anh Nguyet, 2016. "What is the impact of bankrupt and restructured loans on Japanese bank efficiency?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 187-202.
    13. SEKINO Masahiro & WATANABE Wako, 2014. "Does the Policy Lending of the Government Financial Institution Substitute for the Private Lending during the Period of the Credit Crunch? Evidence from loan level data in Japan," Discussion papers 14063, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    14. Hiroyuki Kasahara & Yasuyuki Sawada & Michio Suzuki, 2016. "Monetary Policy and Covered Interest Parity in the Post GFC Period: Evidence from the Australian Dollar and the NZ Dollar," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-1033, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    15. Hiroyuki Kasahara & Yasuyuki Sawada & Michio Suzuki, 2016. "The Effect of Bank Recapitalization Policy on Corporate Investment: Evidence from a Banking Crisis in Japan," CARF F-Series CARF-F-399, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    16. Barros, Carlos Pestana & Managi, Shunsuke & Matousek, Roman, 2012. "The technical efficiency of the Japanese banks: Non-radial directional performance measurement with undesirable output," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 1-8, January.
    17. Fukuyama, Hirofumi & Matousek, Roman, 2017. "Modelling bank performance: A network DEA approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 259(2), pages 721-732.
    18. Mike Mariathasan & Ouarda Merrouche, 2012. "Recapitalization, credit and liquidity," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 27(72), pages 603-646, October.
    19. Akiyoshi, Fumio & Kobayashi, Keiichiro, 2010. "Banking crisis and productivity of borrowing firms: Evidence from Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 141-150, August.


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