The effectiveness of transplant legislation, procedures and management: Cross-country evidence
This article investigates the impact of legal determinants of cadaveric and living donor organ transplantation rates using panel data on legislative, procedural and managerial aspects of organ transplantation and procurement, government health expenditures, enrollment rates, religious beliefs, legal systems and civil rights and liberties for 62 countries over a 2-year period. Under living donor organ transplantation, we found that guaranteeing traceability of organs by law or performing psychiatric evaluation to living donors has a sizeable, negative impact on living transplant rates once the remaining determinants of living transplantation have been controlled for. Under cadaveric transplantation, our findings do not suggest an unequivocal and positive association between presumed consent, donor registries and cadaveric transplant rates. However, legally requiring family consent or maintaining written procurement standards for deceased donors has a sizeable, negative impact on cadaveric transplant rates. The latter finding suggests that informing families rather than asking for consent may be an effective strategy to raise procurement rates while respecting patient autonomy. Finally, we confirm that predominantly non-Christian countries have significantly higher living but lower cadaveric transplant rates.
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