Large capital infusions, investor reactions, and the return and risk-performance of financial institutions over the business cycle
We examine investors’ reactions to announcements of large capital infusions by U.S. financial institutions (FIs) from 2000 to 2009. These infusions include private market infusions (seasoned equity offerings (SEOs)) as well as injections of government capital under the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). The sample period covers both business cycle expansions and contractions, and the recent financial crisis. We present evidence on the factors affecting FIs’ decisions to raise capital, the determinants of investor reactions, and post-infusion risk-taking of the recipients, as well as a sample of matching FIs. Investors reacted negatively to the news of private market SEOs by FIs, both in the immediate term (e.g., the two days surrounding the announcement) and over the subsequent year, but positively to TARP injections. Reactions differed depending on the characteristics of the FIs, and the stage of the business cycle. Smaller, more financially constrained non-bank institutions were more likely to have raised capital through private market offerings during the period prior to TARP, and firms receiving a TARP injection tended to be riskier and more levered. In the case of TARP recipients, they appeared to finance an increase in credit risk with more stable financing sources such as core deposits, which lowered their liquidity risk. However, we find no evidence that banks’ capital adequacy increased after the capital injections.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Allen N. Berger & Rebecca Demsetz & Philip E. Strahan, 1998.
"The consolidation of the financial services industry: causes, consequences, and implications for the future,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
1998-46, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
- Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
- Dinara Bayazitova & Anil Shivdasani, 2012. "Assessing TARP," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(2), pages 377-407.
- Christopher A. Hennessy & Toni M. Whited, 2007. "How Costly Is External Financing? Evidence from a Structural Estimation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(4), pages 1705-1745, 08.
- Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986.
"A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
- Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987. "A Simple, Positive Semi-definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 703-08, May.
- Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Polonchek, John & Slovin, Myron B. & Sushka, Marie E., 1989. "Valuation effects of commercial bank securities offerings : A test of the information hypothesis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 443-461, July.
- Veronesi, Pietro & Zingales, Luigi, 2009.
CEPR Discussion Papers
7528, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Michael C. Keeley, 1989. "The stock price effects of bank holding company securities issuance," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Win, pages 3-19.
- Helwege, Jean & Liang, Nellie, 2004. "Initial Public Offerings in Hot and Cold Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(03), pages 541-569, September.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
- Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, 03.
- McNeil, Chris & Niehaus, Greg & Powers, Eric, 2004. "Management turnover in subsidiaries of conglomerates versus stand-alone firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 63-96, April.
- Slovin, Myron B. & Sushka, Marie E. & Polonchek, John A., 1992. "Informational externalities of seasoned equity issues : Differences between banks and industrial firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 87-101, August.
- Thomas Chemmanur & Shan He & Debarshi Nandy, 2008.
"The Going Public Decision and the Product Market,"
08-20, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- James W. Kolari & Seppo Pynnönen, 2010. "Event Study Testing with Cross-sectional Correlation of Abnormal Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(11), pages 3996-4025, November.
- Janet L. Yellen, 2008.
"The mortgage meltdown, financial markets, and the economy,"
63, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Yellen Janet, 2009. "The Mortgage Meltdown, Financial Markets, and the Economy," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(3), pages 1-10, March.
- Janet L. Yellen, 2008. "The mortgage meltdown, financial markets, and the economy," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue nov7.
- Cornett, Marcia Millon & Tehranian, Hassan, 1994. "An examination of voluntary versus involuntary security issuances by commercial banks *1: The impact of capital regulations on common stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 99-122, February.
- Huang, Roger D. & Stoll, Hans R., 1996. "Dealer versus auction markets: A paired comparison of execution costs on NASDAQ and the NYSE," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 313-357, July.
- Augustin Landier & Vinay B. Nair & Julie Wulf, 2009. "Trade-offs in Staying Close: Corporate Decision Making and Geographic Dispersion," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(3), pages 1119-1148, March.
- Elyasiani, Elyas & Mansur, Iqbal & Pagano, Michael S., 2007. "Convergence and risk-return linkages across financial service firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 1167-1190, April.
- Krishnan, C.N.V. & Ergungor, O. Emre & Laux, Paul A. & Singh, Ajai K. & Zebedee, Allan A., 2010. "Examining bank SEOs: Are offers made by undercapitalized banks different?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 207-234, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finsta:v:11:y:2014:i:c:p:62-81. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.