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Characterization of energy use and performance of global cheese processing


  • Xu, Tengfang
  • Flapper, Joris
  • Kramer, Klaas Jan


The global cheese-making industry processes approximately one quarter of total raw milk production to create a variety of consumer cheeses, and cheese processing can be very energy-intensive. Characterizing energy usage in existing cheese markets and plants can provide baseline information to allow comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on cheese-making across various countries and regions. The study has found that the magnitudes of average final energy intensity exhibited significant variations, ranging from 4.9 to 8.9MJ per kg cheese across a few countries. In addition, the final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited even more significant variations, ranging from 1.8 to 68.2MJ per kg of cheese from the countries in this study. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy savings' opportunities in the sector. The paper also indicates that there are positive association between implementation of energy measures and the decreasing trends of specific energy consumption over time, and suggests that developing and promulgating an energy-benchmarking framework including a process step approach and efficiency measures should be recommended for evaluating energy performance and improving energy efficiency in cheese-making industry.

Suggested Citation

  • Xu, Tengfang & Flapper, Joris & Kramer, Klaas Jan, 2009. "Characterization of energy use and performance of global cheese processing," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 1993-2000.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:34:y:2009:i:11:p:1993-2000
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Dhayaneswaran, Y. & Ashok Kumar, L., 2014. "A study on current characteristics of induction motor while operating at its base frequency in textile industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 340-345.
    2. Damour, C. & Hamdi, M. & Josset, C. & Auvity, B. & Boillereaux, L., 2012. "Energy analysis and optimization of a food defrosting system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 562-570.
    3. Giacone, E. & Mancò, S., 2012. "Energy efficiency measurement in industrial processes," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 331-345.
    4. Özilgen, Mustafa & Sorgüven, Esra, 2011. "Energy and exergy utilization, and carbon dioxide emission in vegetable oil production," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 5954-5967.
    5. Mirade, Pierre-Sylvain & Perret, Bruno & Guillemin, Hervé & Picque, Daniel & Desserre, Béatrice & Montel, Marie-Christine & Corrieu, Georges, 2012. "Quantifying energy savings during cheese ripening after implementation of sequential air ventilation in an industrial cheesemaking plant," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 248-258.
    6. Palamutcu, S., 2010. "Electric energy consumption in the cotton textile processing stages," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 2945-2952.
    7. Xu, Tengfang & Flapper, Joris, 2009. "Energy use and implications for efficiency strategies in global fluid-milk processing industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5334-5341, December.
    8. Xu, Tengfang & Karali, Nihan & Sathaye, Jayant, 2014. "Undertaking high impact strategies: The role of national efficiency measures in long-term energy and emission reduction in steel making," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 179-188.
    9. Nunes, J. & Silva, Pedro D. & Andrade, L.P. & Gaspar, Pedro D., 2016. "Key points on the energy sustainable development of the food industry – Case study of the Portuguese sausages industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 393-411.
    10. Xu, Tengfang & Flapper, Joris, 2011. "Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 234-247, January.
    11. Nihan Karali & Tengfang Xu & Jayant Sathaye, 2016. "Developing long-term strategies to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions—analysis of three mitigation scenarios for iron and steel production in China," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 21(5), pages 699-719, June.
    12. Karakaya, Ahmet & Özilgen, Mustafa, 2011. "Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 5101-5110.
    13. Saygin, D. & Worrell, E. & Patel, M.K. & Gielen, D.J., 2011. "Benchmarking the energy use of energy-intensive industries in industrialized and in developing countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 6661-6673.


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