IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Energy efficiency in industry: EU and national policies in Italy and the UK


  • Malinauskaite, J.
  • Jouhara, H.
  • Ahmad, L.
  • Milani, M.
  • Montorsi, L.
  • Venturelli, M.


Energy efficiency, which is one of the pillars of the EU's Energy Union strategy, has been proposed as a solution, namely as a highly effective pathway to improve economic competitiveness and sustainability of the European economy, lower emissions, reduce energy dependency and increase security of supply, and job creation. The paper reviews the EU strategies and policies on energy efficiency and argues that further focus should be placed on industrial energy efficiency. Despite a decline in energy consumption in recent years in industry, this sector is one of the largest users of energy in the EU. Therefore, the paper reviews the extent to which the European and national policies in the selected jurisdictions, such as Italy and the UK address energy efficiency in industry and whether there are any measures in place to promote it.

Suggested Citation

  • Malinauskaite, J. & Jouhara, H. & Ahmad, L. & Milani, M. & Montorsi, L. & Venturelli, M., 2019. "Energy efficiency in industry: EU and national policies in Italy and the UK," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 255-269.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:172:y:2019:i:c:p:255-269
    DOI: 10.1016/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nabitz, Lisa & Hirzel, Simon, 2019. "Transposing The Requirements of the Energy Efficiency Directive on Mandatory Energy Audits for Large Companies: A Policy‐Cycle‐based review of the National Implementation in the EU-28 Member States," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 548-561.
    2. Mr. David Coady & Baoping Shang & Louis Sears & Ian W.H. Parry, 2015. "How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies?," IMF Working Papers 2015/105, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Louis-Gaëtan Giraudet & D. Finon, 2014. "European experiences with white certificate obligations: A critical review of existing evaluations," Working Papers hal-01016110, HAL.
    4. Moser, Simon, 2017. "Overestimation of savings in energy efficiency obligation schemes," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 599-605.
    5. Jouhara, Hussam & Almahmoud, Sulaiman & Chauhan, Amisha & Delpech, Bertrand & Bianchi, Giuseppe & Tassou, Savvas A. & Llera, Rocio & Lago, Francisco & Arribas, Juan José, 2017. "Experimental and theoretical investigation of a flat heat pipe heat exchanger for waste heat recovery in the steel industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 1928-1939.
    6. Liao, Nuo & He, Yong, 2018. "Exploring the effects of influencing factors on energy efficiency in industrial sector using cluster analysis and panel regression model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 782-795.
    7. Jouhara, H. & Milko, J. & Danielewicz, J. & Sayegh, M.A. & Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M. & Ramos, J.B. & Lester, S.P., 2016. "The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 148-154.
    8. Joachim Schleich, 2004. "Do energy audits help reduce barriers to energy efficiency? An empirical analysis for Germany," International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 2(3), pages 226-239.
    9. Fleiter, Tobias & Schleich, Joachim & Ravivanpong, Ployplearn, 2012. "Adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs—An empirical analysis based on energy audit data from Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 863-875.
    10. Buonomano, Annamaria & Calise, Francesco & Dentice d'Accadia, Massimo & Vanoli, Laura, 2013. "A novel solar trigeneration system based on concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collectors. Part 1: Design and simulation model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 59-71.
    11. Louis-Gaetan Giraudet and Dominique Finon, 2015. "European experiences with white certifirecate obligations: A critical review of existing evaluations," Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    12. Finnerty, Noel & Sterling, Raymond & Coakley, Daniel & Contreras, Sergio & Coffey, Ronan & Keane, Marcus M., 2017. "Development of a Global Energy Management System for non-energy intensive multi-site industrial organisations: A methodology," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 16-31.
    13. Tobias Fleitera & Joachim Schleich & Ployplearn Ravivanpong, 2012. "Adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs - An empirical analysis based on energy audit data," Grenoble Ecole de Management (Post-Print) hal-00805748, HAL.
    14. Jouhara, H. & Chauhan, A. & Nannou, T. & Almahmoud, S. & Delpech, B. & Wrobel, L.C., 2017. "Heat pipe based systems - Advances and applications," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 729-754.
    15. Ma, Hongting & Du, Na & Zhang, Zeyu & Lyu, Fan & Deng, Na & Li, Cong & Yu, Shaojie, 2017. "Assessment of the optimum operation conditions on a heat pipe heat exchanger for waste heat recovery in steel industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 50-60.
    16. Lawrence, Akvile & Karlsson, Magnus & Thollander, Patrik, 2018. "Effects of firm characteristics and energy management for improving energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 825-835.
    17. Wang, Zhaoxia & Zhu, Han & Ding, Yan & Zhu, Tianli & Zhu, Neng & Tian, Zhe, 2018. "Energy efficiency evaluation of key energy consumption sectors in China based on a macro-evaluating system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 65-79.
    18. Hartwig, Johannes & Kockat, Judit & Schade, Wolfgang & Braungardt, Sibylle, 2017. "The macroeconomic effects of ambitious energy efficiency policy in Germany – Combining bottom-up energy modelling with a non-equilibrium macroeconomic model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 510-520.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Malinauskaite, Jurgita & Jouhara, Hussam & Egilegor, Bakartxo & Al-Mansour, Fouad & Ahmad, Lujean & Pusnik, Matevz, 2020. "Energy efficiency in the industrial sector in the EU, Slovenia, and Spain," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 208(C).
    2. Olsthoorn, Mark & Schleich, Joachim & Hirzel, Simon, 2017. "Adoption of Energy Efficiency Measures for Non-residential Buildings: Technological and Organizational Heterogeneity in the Trade, Commerce and Services Sector," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 240-254.
    3. Schlomann, Barbara & Schleich, Joachim, 2015. "Adoption of low-cost energy efficiency measures in the tertiary sector—An empirical analysis based on energy survey data," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1127-1133.
    4. Kalantzis, Fotios & Revoltella, Debora, 2019. "How energy audits promote SMEs' energy efficiency investment," EIB Working Papers 2019/02, European Investment Bank (EIB).
    5. Zhao, Xiaofan & Li, Huimin & Wu, Liang & Qi, Ye, 2014. "Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 170-184.
    6. Sun, Hongli & Duan, Mengfan & Wu, Yifan & Lin, Borong & Yang, Zixu & Zhao, Haitian, 2021. "Thermal performance investigation of a novel heating terminal integrated with flat heat pipe and heat transfer enhancement," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 236(C).
    7. Jose García-Quevedo & Xavier Massa-Camps, 2019. "Why firms invest (or not) in energy efficiency? A review of the econometric evidence," Working Papers 2019/07, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    8. Delpech, Bertrand & Axcell, Brian & Jouhara, Hussam, 2019. "Experimental investigation of a radiative heat pipe for waste heat recovery in a ceramics kiln," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 170(C), pages 636-651.
    9. Barbetta, Gian Paolo & Canino, Paolo & Cima, Stefano, 2015. "The impact of energy audits on energy efficiency investment of public owners. Evidence from Italy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 93(P1), pages 1199-1209.
    10. Backlund, Sandra & Thollander, Patrik, 2015. "Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 54-60.
    11. Kubule, Anna & Ločmelis, Kristaps & Blumberga, Dagnija, 2020. "Analysis of the results of national energy audit program in Latvia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 202(C).
    12. Schleich, Joachim & Fleiter, Tobias, 2019. "Effectiveness of energy audits in small business organizations," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 59-70.
    13. Jouhara, Hussam & Almahmoud, Sulaiman & Brough, Daniel & Guichet, Valentin & Delpech, Bertrand & Chauhan, Amisha & Ahmad, Lujean & Serey, Nicolas, 2021. "Experimental and theoretical investigation of the performance of an air to water multi-pass heat pipe-based heat exchanger," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 219(C).
    14. Schubert, Torben & Breitschopf, Barbara & Plötz, Patrick, 2021. "Energy efficiency and the direct and indirect effects of energy audits and implementation support programmes in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 157(C).
    15. Almahmoud, Sulaiman & Jouhara, Hussam, 2019. "Experimental and theoretical investigation on a radiative flat heat pipe heat exchanger," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 174(C), pages 972-984.
    16. Todd D. Gerarden & Richard G. Newell & Robert N. Stavins, 2017. "Assessing the Energy-Efficiency Gap," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(4), pages 1486-1525, December.
    17. Kube, Roland & von Graevenitz, Kathrine & Löschel, Andreas & Massier, Philipp, 2019. "Do voluntary environmental programs reduce emissions? EMAS in the German manufacturing sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(S1).
    18. Meyabadi, A. Fattahi & Deihimi, M.H., 2017. "A review of demand-side management: Reconsidering theoretical framework," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 367-379.
    19. Barbara Schlomann & Wolfgang Eichhammer, 2014. "Interaction between Climate, Emissions Trading and Energy Efficiency Targets," Energy & Environment, , vol. 25(3-4), pages 709-731, April.
    20. Feser, Daniel & Runst, Petrik, 2016. "Energy efficiency consultants as change agents? Examining the reasons for EECs’ limited success," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 309-317.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:172:y:2019:i:c:p:255-269. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.