IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The macroeconomic effects of ambitious energy efficiency policy in Germany – Combining bottom-up energy modelling with a non-equilibrium macroeconomic model


  • Hartwig, Johannes
  • Kockat, Judit
  • Schade, Wolfgang
  • Braungardt, Sibylle


Energy efficiency is one of the fastest and most cost-effective contributions to a sustainable, secure and affordable energy system. Furthermore, the so-called “non-energy benefits”, “co-benefits” or “multiple benefits” of energy efficiency are receiving increased interest from policy makers and the scientific community. Among the various non-energy benefits of energy efficiency initiatives, the macroeconomic benefits play an important role. Our study presents a detailed analysis of the long-term macroeconomic effects of German energy efficiency policy including the industry and service sectors as well as residential energy demand. We quantify the macroeconomic effects of an ambitious energy efficiency scenario by combining bottom-up models with an extended dynamic input-output model. We study sectoral shifts within the economy regarding value added and employment compared to the baseline scenario. We provide an in-depth analysis of the effects of energy efficiency policy on consumers, individual industry sectors, and the economy as a whole. We find significant positive macroeconomic effects resulting from energy efficiency initiatives, with growth effects for both GDP and employment ranging between 0.88% and 3.38%. Differences in sectoral gains lead to a shift in the economy. Our methodological approach provides a comprehensive framework for analyzing the macroeconomic benefits of energy efficiency.

Suggested Citation

  • Hartwig, Johannes & Kockat, Judit & Schade, Wolfgang & Braungardt, Sibylle, 2017. "The macroeconomic effects of ambitious energy efficiency policy in Germany – Combining bottom-up energy modelling with a non-equilibrium macroeconomic model," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 510-520.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:124:y:2017:i:c:p:510-520
    DOI: 10.1016/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bohringer, Christoph & Rutherford, Thomas F., 2008. "Combining bottom-up and top-down," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 574-596, March.
    2. Scott, Michael J. & Roop, Joseph M. & Schultz, Robert W. & Anderson, David M. & Cort, Katherine A., 2008. "The impact of DOE building technology energy efficiency programs on U.S. employment, income, and investment," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2283-2301, September.
    3. Dr. Ulrike Lehr & Dr. Christian Lutz & Dr. Martin Pehnt & Udo Lambrecht & Friedrich Seefeldt & Marco Wünsch & Barbara Schlomann & Tobias Fleiter, 2011. "20% by 2020? Economy-wide impacts of energy efficiency improvement in Germany," GWS Discussion Paper Series 11-2, GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research.
    4. Wei, Max & Patadia, Shana & Kammen, Daniel M., 2010. "Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 919-931, February.
    5. Rose, Adam, 1995. "Input-output economics and computable general equilibrium models," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 295-304, August.
    6. Diaz-Rainey, Ivan & Ashton, John K., 2015. "Investment inefficiency and the adoption of eco-innovations: The case of household energy efficiency technologies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 105-117.
    7. Broberg, Thomas & Berg, Charlotte & Samakovlis, Eva, 2015. "The economy-wide rebound effect from improved energy efficiency in Swedish industries–A general equilibrium analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 26-37.
    8. Sue Wing, Ian, 2008. "The synthesis of bottom-up and top-down approaches to climate policy modeling: Electric power technology detail in a social accounting framework," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 547-573, March.
    9. Fleiter, Tobias & Hirzel, Simon & Worrell, Ernst, 2012. "The characteristics of energy-efficiency measures – a neglected dimension," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 502-513.
    10. Scrieciu, S. Serban, 2007. "The inherent dangers of using computable general equilibrium models as a single integrated modelling framework for sustainability impact assessment. A critical note on Bohringer and Loschel (2006)," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(4), pages 678-684, February.
    11. Johannes Hartwig & Judit Kockat, 2016. "Macroeconomic effects of energetic building retrofit: input-output sensitivity analyses," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 79-97, February.
    12. Roberto Pietroforte & Tullio Gregori, 2003. "An input-output analysis of the construction sector in highly developed economies," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(3), pages 319-327.
    13. Bertoldi, Paolo & Rezessy, Silvia & Oikonomou, Vlasis, 2013. "Rewarding energy savings rather than energy efficiency: Exploring the concept of a feed-in tariff for energy savings," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 526-535.
    14. Capros, Pantelis & Karadeloglou, Pavlos & Mentzas, Gregory, 1991. "Market imperfections in a general equilibrium framework : An empirical analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 116-128, January.
    15. Intriligator, Michael D., 1983. "Economic and econometric models," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 3, pages 181-221, Elsevier.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Wenxiao Chu & Francesco Calise & Neven Duić & Poul Alberg Østergaard & Maria Vicidomini & Qiuwang Wang, 2020. "Recent Advances in Technology, Strategy and Application of Sustainable Energy Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(19), pages 1-29, October.
    2. Samuel Lotsu & Yuichiro Yoshida & Katsufumi Fukuda & Bing He, 2019. "Effectiveness of a Power Factor Correction Policy in Improving the Energy Efficiency of Large-Scale Electricity Users in Ghana," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(13), pages 1-11, July.
    3. Paola Rocchi & José Manuel Rueda-Cantuche & Alicia Boyano & Alejandro Villanueva, 2019. "Macroeconomic Effects of EU Energy Efficiency Regulations on Household Dishwashers, Washing Machines and Washer Dryers," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(22), pages 1-21, November.
    4. Martin K. Patel & Jean-Sébastien Broc & Haein Cho & Daniel Cabrera & Armin Eberle & Alessandro Federici & Alisa Freyre & Cédric Jeanneret & Kapil Narula & Vlasios Oikonomou & Selin Yilmaz, 2021. "Why We Continue to Need Energy Efficiency Programmes—A Critical Review Based on Experiences in Switzerland and Elsewhere," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 14(6), pages 1-28, March.
    5. Malinauskaite, J. & Jouhara, H. & Ahmad, L. & Milani, M. & Montorsi, L. & Venturelli, M., 2019. "Energy efficiency in industry: EU and national policies in Italy and the UK," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 255-269.
    6. Andersen, Kristoffer S. & Termansen, Lars B. & Gargiulo, Maurizio & Ó Gallachóirc, Brian P., 2019. "Bridging the gap using energy services: Demonstrating a novel framework for soft linking top-down and bottom-up models," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 277-293.
    7. Parikh, Kirit S. & Parikh, Jyoti K. & Ghosh, Probal P., 2018. "Can India grow and live within a 1.5 degree CO2 emissions budget?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 24-37.
    8. Chui Ying Lee & Samuel Lotsu & Moinul Islam & Yuichiro Yoshida & Shinji Kaneko, 2019. "The Impact of an Energy Efficiency Improvement Policy on the Economic Performance of Electricity-Intensive Firms in Ghana," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(19), pages 1-21, September.
    9. Andersen, Kristoffer Steen & Dockweiler, Steffen & Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik, 2019. "Squaring the energy efficiency circle: evaluating industry energy efficiency policy in a hybrid model setting," MPRA Paper 96546, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lee, Hwarang & Kang, Sung Won & Koo, Yoonmo, 2020. "A hybrid energy system model to evaluate the impact of climate policy on the manufacturing sector: Adoption of energy-efficient technologies and rebound effects," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 212(C).
    2. Markaki, M. & Belegri-Roboli, A. & Michaelides, P. & Mirasgedis, S. & Lalas, D.P., 2013. "The impact of clean energy investments on the Greek economy: An input–output analysis (2010–2020)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 263-275.
    3. Bohlmann, H.R. & Horridge, J.M. & Inglesi-Lotz, R. & Roos, E.L. & Stander, L., 2019. "Regional employment and economic growth effects of South Africa’s transition to low-carbon energy supply mix," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 830-837.
    4. Yushchenko, Alisa & Patel, Martin Kumar, 2016. "Contributing to a green energy economy? A macroeconomic analysis of an energy efficiency program operated by a Swiss utility," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 1304-1320.
    5. Cai, Yiyong & Newth, David & Finnigan, John & Gunasekera, Don, 2015. "A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 381-395.
    6. Pothen, Frank & Hübler, Michael, 2021. "A forward calibration method for analyzing energy policy in new quantitative trade models," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C).
    7. Perrier, Quentin & Quirion, Philippe, 2018. "How shifting investment towards low-carbon sectors impacts employment: Three determinants under scrutiny," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 464-483.
    8. Dai, Hancheng & Mischke, Peggy & Xie, Xuxuan & Xie, Yang & Masui, Toshihiko, 2016. "Closing the gap? Top-down versus bottom-up projections of China’s regional energy use and CO2 emissions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 1355-1373.
    9. Blazejczak, Jürgen & Braun, Frauke G. & Edler, Dietmar & Schill, Wolf-Peter, 2014. "Economic effects of renewable energy expansion: A model-based analysis for Germany," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1070-1080.
    10. Sebastian Rausch and Valerie J. Karplus, 2014. "Markets versus Regulation: The Efficiency and Distributional Impacts of U.S. Climate Policy Proposals," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I).
    11. Costantini, Valeria & Crespi, Francesco & Paglialunga, Elena, 2018. "The employment impact of private and public actions for energy efficiency: Evidence from European industries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 250-267.
    12. Andersen, Kristoffer S. & Termansen, Lars B. & Gargiulo, Maurizio & Ó Gallachóirc, Brian P., 2019. "Bridging the gap using energy services: Demonstrating a novel framework for soft linking top-down and bottom-up models," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 277-293.
    13. Li, Francis G.N. & Bataille, Chris & Pye, Steve & O'Sullivan, Aidan, 2019. "Prospects for energy economy modelling with big data: Hype, eliminating blind spots, or revolutionising the state of the art?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 239(C), pages 991-1002.
    14. Quentin Perrier & Philippe Quirion, 2016. "La transition énergétique est-elle favorable aux branches à fort contenu en emploi ? Une approche input-output pour la France," Working Papers 2016.09, FAERE - French Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.
    15. Fortes, Patrícia & Pereira, Rui & Pereira, Alfredo & Seixas, Júlia, 2014. "Integrated technological-economic modeling platform for energy and climate policy analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 716-730.
    16. Rausch, Sebastian & Zhang, Da, 2018. "Capturing natural resource heterogeneity in top-down energy-economic equilibrium models," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 917-926.
    17. Willenbockel, Dirk, 2017. "Macroeconomic Effects of a Low-Carbon Electricity Transition in Kenya and Ghana: An Exploratory Dynamic General Equilibrium Analysis," MPRA Paper 78070, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Rodrigues, Renato & Linares, Pedro, 2015. "Electricity load level detail in computational general equilibrium – part II – welfare impacts of a demand response program," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 52-67.
    19. Stavropoulos, S. & Burger, M.J., 2020. "Modelling strategy and net employment effects of renewable energy and energy efficiency: A meta-regression," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    20. Carley, Sanya & Lawrence, Sara & Brown, Adrienne & Nourafshan, Andrew & Benami, Elinor, 2011. "Energy-based economic development," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 282-295, January.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:124:y:2017:i:c:p:510-520. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.