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Macroeconomic Effects of EU Energy Efficiency Regulations on Household Dishwashers, Washing Machines and Washer Dryers


  • Paola Rocchi

    (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Spain. C/Inca Garcilaso, 3, 41092 Sevilla, Spain)

  • José Manuel Rueda-Cantuche

    (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Spain. C/Inca Garcilaso, 3, 41092 Sevilla, Spain)

  • Alicia Boyano

    (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Spain. C/Inca Garcilaso, 3, 41092 Sevilla, Spain)

  • Alejandro Villanueva

    (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Spain. C/Inca Garcilaso, 3, 41092 Sevilla, Spain)


Testing the relationship between economic performance and energy consumption is of utmost importance in nearly all countries. Taking the European Union as scope, this paper analyses the impacts of energy efficiency legislation on a selection of household appliances. In particular, it analyses the employment and value added impacts of the stricter energy efficiency requirements for dishwashers, washing machines, and washer dryers. To do so, this paper combines a bottom-up stock model with a macro-econometric dynamic general equilibrium model (FIDELIO) to quantify the direct and indirect value added and employment impacts in the European Union. The analysis shows that stricter energy efficiency requirements on household dishwashers, washing machines, and washer dryers have a net negative macroeconomic impact on value added (roughly 0.01 % of the total European Union value added) and a slightly net positive impact on employment. In fact, the regulations cause a shift in the composition of the household consumption basket that seems to favor labor-intensive industries.

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  • Paola Rocchi & José Manuel Rueda-Cantuche & Alicia Boyano & Alejandro Villanueva, 2019. "Macroeconomic Effects of EU Energy Efficiency Regulations on Household Dishwashers, Washing Machines and Washer Dryers," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(22), pages 1-21, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:12:y:2019:i:22:p:4312-:d:286193

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    1. G. Venkatesh, 2022. "Dishwashers: Literature Review to Summarise the Multi-Dimensionality of Sustainable Production and Consumption," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(16), pages 1-21, August.
    2. Dan Yu & Bart Dewancker & Fanyue Qian, 2020. "The Identification and Rebound Effect Evaluation of Equipment Energy Efficiency Improvement Policy: A Case Study on Japan’s Top Runner Policy," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(17), pages 1-18, August.

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