IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v89y2016icp11-24.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The effect of regulatory governance on efficiency of thermal power generation in India: A stochastic frontier analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Ghosh, Ranjan
  • Kathuria, Vinish

Abstract

This paper investigates the impact of institutional quality – typified as regulatory governance – on the performance of thermal power plants in India. The Indian power sector was reformed in the early 1990s. However, reforms are effective only as much as the regulators are committed in ensuring that they are implemented. We hypothesize that higher the quality of regulation in a federal Indian state, higher is the efficiency of electric generation utilities. A translog stochastic frontier model is estimated using index of state-level independent regulation as one of the determinants of inefficiency. The dataset comprises a panel of 77 coal-based thermal power plants during the reform period covering over 70% of installed electricity generation capacity. The mean technical efficiency of 76.7% indicates there is wide scope for efficiency improvement in the sector. Results are robust to various model specifications and show that state-level regulators have positively impacted plant performance. Technical efficiency is sensitive to both unbundling of state utilities, and regulatory experience. The policy implication is that further reforms which empower independent regulators will have far reaching impacts on power sector performance.

Suggested Citation

  • Ghosh, Ranjan & Kathuria, Vinish, 2016. "The effect of regulatory governance on efficiency of thermal power generation in India: A stochastic frontier analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 11-24.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:89:y:2016:i:c:p:11-24
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2015.11.011
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421515301890
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.enpol.2015.11.011?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Luis Andres & José Luis Guasch & Sebastián Lopez Azumendi, 2009. "Regulatory Governance and Sector Performance: Methodology and Evaluation for Electricity Distribution in Latin America," Chapters, in: Claude Ménard & Michel Ghertman (ed.), Regulation, Deregulation, Reregulation, chapter 6, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Du, Limin & Mao, Jie & Shi, Jinchuan, 2009. "Assessing the impact of regulatory reforms on China's electricity generation industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 712-720, February.
    3. Yin-Fang Zhang & David Parker & Colin Kirkpatrick, 2008. "Electricity sector reform in developing countries: an econometric assessment of the effects of privatization, competition and regulation," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 159-178, April.
    4. Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Measuring efficiency at U.S. banks: Accounting for heterogeneity is important," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 230-242, April.
    5. Chikkatur, Ananth P. & Sagar, Ambuj D. & Abhyankar, Nikit & Sreekumar, N., 2007. "Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 3744-3758, July.
    6. Sanford Berg & Chen Lin & Valeriy Tsaplin, 2005. "Regulation of State-Owned and Privatized Utilities: Ukraine Electricity Distribution Company Performance," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 259-287, November.
    7. Jaraitė, Jūratė & Di Maria, Corrado, 2012. "Efficiency, productivity and environmental policy: A case study of power generation in the EU," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1557-1568.
    8. Oliver E. Williamson, 2005. "The Economics of Governance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 1-18, May.
    9. Federico Belotti & Silvio Daidone & Giuseppe Ilardi & Vincenzo Atella, 2013. "Stochastic frontier analysis using Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 13(4), pages 718-758, December.
    10. Levy, Brian & Spiller, Pablo T, 1994. "The Institutional Foundations of Regulatory Commitment: A Comparative Analysis of Telecommunications Regulation," The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 201-246, October.
    11. Reifschneider, David & Stevenson, Rodney, 1991. "Systematic Departures from the Frontier: A Framework for the Analysis of Firm Inefficiency," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 32(3), pages 715-723, August.
    12. Joskow, Paul L & Schmalensee, Richard, 1987. "The Performance of Coal-Burning Electric Generating Units in the United States: 1960-1980," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 2(2), pages 85-109, April.
    13. Madhu Khanna & Kusum Mundra & Aman Ullah, 1999. "Parametric and semi-parametric estimation of the effect of firm attributes on efficiency: the electricity generating industry in India," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 419-430.
    14. Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin & Waddams Price, Catherine M. & Weyman-Jones, Thomas G., 1996. "Efficiency and ownership in electricity distribution: A non-parametric model of the Turkish experience," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1-2), pages 1-23, April.
    15. Stern, Jon & Holder, Stuart, 1999. "Regulatory governance: criteria for assessing the performance of regulatory systems: An application to infrastructure industries in the developing countries of Asia," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 33-50, March.
    16. John Cubbin & Jon Stern, 2006. "The Impact of Regulatory Governance and Privatization on Electricity Industry Generation Capacity in Developing Economies," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank, vol. 20(1), pages 115-141.
    17. Ghosh, Ranjan & Kathuria, Vinish, 2014. "The transaction costs driving captive power generation: Evidence from India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 179-188.
    18. Abbott, Malcolm, 2006. "The productivity and efficiency of the Australian electricity supply industry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 444-454, July.
    19. L. Dean Hiebert, 2002. "The Determinants of the Cost Efficiency of Electric Generating Plants: A Stochastic Frontier Approach," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 68(4), pages 935-946, April.
    20. Ali Emami Meibodi, 1998. "Efficiency Considerations in the Electricity Supply Industry; The Case of Iran," Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), School of Economics Discussion Papers (SEEDS) 95, Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    21. Noll, Roger G., 1989. "Economic perspectives on the politics of regulation," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 22, pages 1253-1287, Elsevier.
    22. Fare, R. & Grosskopf, S. & Pasurka, C., 1986. "Effects on relative efficiency in electric power generation due to environmental controls," Resources and Energy, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 167-184, June.
    23. Madhu Khanna & David Zilberman, 1999. "Barriers to Energy-Efficiency in Electricity Generation in India," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 25-41.
    24. Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki & Goto, Mika, 2011. "DEA approach for unified efficiency measurement: Assessment of Japanese fossil fuel power generation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 292-303, March.
    25. K.R. Shanmugam & Praveen Kulshreshtha, 2005. "Efficiency analysis of coal-based thermal power generation in India during post-reform era," International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 23(1), pages 15-28.
    26. Jamasb, Tooraj & Pollitt, Michael, 2007. "Incentive regulation of electricity distribution networks: Lessons of experience from Britain," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 6163-6187, December.
    27. Seo, Daigyo & Shin, Jonghyup, 2011. "The impact of incentive regulation on productivity in the US telecommunications industry: A stochastic frontier approach," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 3-11, March.
    28. Maruyama, Naoko & Eckelman, Matthew J., 2009. "Long-term trends of electric efficiencies in electricity generation in developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1678-1686, May.
    29. Mester, Loretta J., 1993. "Efficiency in the savings and loan industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 267-286, April.
    30. Gerald Granderson, 2006. "Externalities, efficiency, regulation, and productivity growth in the U.S. electric utility industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 269-287, December.
    31. Jeni Klugman & Francisco Rodríguez & Hyung-Jin Choi, 2011. "The HDI 2010: new controversies, old critiques," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 9(2), pages 249-288, June.
    32. W. Erwin Diewert & Alice O. Nakamura, 1999. "Benchmarking and the measurement of the best practice efficiency: an electricity generation application," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(2), pages 570-588, April.
    33. Jean-Jacques Laffont & Jean Tirole, 1993. "A Theory of Incentives in Procurement and Regulation," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262121743, December.
    34. Claude Menard & Mary M. Shirley (ed.), 2005. "Handbook of New Institutional Economics," Springer Books, Springer, number 978-0-387-25092-2, January.
    35. Jung, Yonghun & Lee, Seong-Hoon, 2014. "Electrification and productivity growth in Korean manufacturing plants," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 333-339.
    36. Pitt, Mark M. & Lee, Lung-Fei, 1981. "The measurement and sources of technical inefficiency in the Indonesian weaving industry," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 43-64, August.
    37. See, Kok Fong & Coelli, Tim, 2012. "An analysis of factors that influence the technical efficiency of Malaysian thermal power plants," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 677-685.
    38. Fare, R. & Grosskopf, S. & Logan, J., 1985. "The relative performance of publicly-owned and privately-owned electric utilities," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 89-106, February.
    39. Dubash, Navroz K. & Rao, D. Narasimha, 2008. "Regulatory practice and politics: Lessons from independent regulation in Indian electricity," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 321-331, December.
    40. Olatubi, Williams O. & Dismukes, David E., 2000. "A data envelopment analysis of the levels and determinants of coal-fired electric power generation performance," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 47-59, June.
    41. Graus, W.H.J. & Voogt, M. & Worrell, E., 2007. "International comparison of energy efficiency of fossil power generation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 3936-3951, July.
    42. Pablo T. Spiller & Mariano Tommasi, 2008. "The Institutions of Regulation: An Application to Public Utilities," Springer Books, in: Claude Ménard & Mary M. Shirley (ed.), Handbook of New Institutional Economics, chapter 20, pages 515-543, Springer.
    43. Shrivastava, Naveen & Sharma, Seema & Chauhan, Kavita, 2012. "Efficiency assessment and benchmarking of thermal power plants in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 159-176.
    44. Joga Singh, 1991. "Plant size and Technical Efficiency in the Indian Thermal Power Industry," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 239-252, July.
    45. Loeb, Martin & Magat, Wesley A, 1979. "A Decentralized Method for Utility Regulation," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 399-404, October.
    46. Kumbhakar, Subal C & Ghosh, Soumendra & McGuckin, J Thomas, 1991. "A Generalized Production Frontier Approach for Estimating Determinants of Inefficiency in U.S. Dairy Farms," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 9(3), pages 279-286, July.
    47. Singh, Anoop, 2006. "Power sector reform in India: current issues and prospects," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(16), pages 2480-2490, November.
    48. Goto, Mika & Tsutsui, Miki, 2008. "Technical efficiency and impacts of deregulation: An analysis of three functions in U.S. electric power utilities during the period from 1992 through 2000," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 15-38, January.
    49. Cornwell, Christopher & Schmidt, Peter & Sickles, Robin C., 1990. "Production frontiers with cross-sectional and time-series variation in efficiency levels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 185-200.
    50. Sarıca, Kemal & Or, Ilhan, 2007. "Efficiency assessment of Turkish power plants using data envelopment analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1484-1499.
    51. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-332.
    52. Christopher R. Knittel, 2002. "Alternative Regulatory Methods And Firm Efficiency: Stochastic Frontier Evidence From The U.S. Electricity Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 530-540, August.
    53. Kabir Malik & Maureen Cropper & Alexander Limonov & Anoop Singh, 2011. "Estimating the Impact of Restructuring on Electricity Generation Efficiency: The Case of the Indian Thermal Power Sector," NBER Working Papers 17383, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    54. Pun-Lee Lam & Alice Shiu, 2004. "Efficiency and Productivity of China's Thermal Power Generation," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 24(1), pages 73-93, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. See, Kok Fong & Coelli, Tim, 2012. "An analysis of factors that influence the technical efficiency of Malaysian thermal power plants," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 677-685.
    2. Sugathan, Anish & Malghan, Deepak & Chandrashekar, S. & Sinha, Deepak K., 2019. "Downstream electric utility restructuring and upstream generation efficiency: Productivity dynamics of Indian coal and gas based electricity generators," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 832-852.
    3. See, Kok Fong & Coelli, Tim, 2014. "Total factor productivity analysis of a single vertically integrated electricity utility in Malaysia using a Törnqvist index method," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 62-72.
    4. Li, Ming-Jia & Tao, Wen-Quan, 2017. "Review of methodologies and polices for evaluation of energy efficiency in high energy-consuming industry," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 187(C), pages 203-215.
    5. Jindal, Abhinav & Nilakantan, Rahul, 2021. "Falling efficiency levels of Indian coal-fired power plants: A slacks-based analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C).
    6. Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki & Yuan, Yan & Goto, Mika, 2017. "A literature study for DEA applied to energy and environment," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 104-124.
    7. Kabir Malik, Maureen Cropper, Alexander Limonov and Anoop Singh, 2015. "The Impact of Electricity Sector Restructuring on Coal-fired Power Plants in India," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4).
    8. Kabir Malik & Maureen Cropper & Alexander Limonov & Anoop Singh, 2011. "Estimating the Impact of Restructuring on Electricity Generation Efficiency: The Case of the Indian Thermal Power Sector," NBER Working Papers 17383, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Du, Limin & He, Yanan & Yan, Jianye, 2013. "The effects of electricity reforms on productivity and efficiency of China's fossil-fired power plants: An empirical analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 804-812.
    10. Adwoa Asantewaa & Tooraj Jamasb & Manuel Llorca, 2022. "Electricity Sector Reform Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Parametric Distance Function Approach," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(6), pages 1-29, March.
    11. Massimiliano Piacenza, 2002. "Regulatory Constraints and Cost Efficiency of the Italian Public Transit Systems: An Exploratory Stochastic Frontier Model," CERIS Working Paper 200202, CNR-IRCrES Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth - Torino (TO) ITALY - former Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY.
    12. Erdogdu, Erkan, 2013. "Essays on Electricity Market Reforms: A Cross-Country Applied Approach," MPRA Paper 47139, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Subal C. Kumbhakar & Christopher F. Parmeter & Valentin Zelenyuk, 2022. "Stochastic Frontier Analysis: Foundations and Advances I," Springer Books, in: Subhash C. Ray & Robert G. Chambers & Subal C. Kumbhakar (ed.), Handbook of Production Economics, chapter 8, pages 331-370, Springer.
    14. Zhao, Xiaoli & Ma, Chunbo, 2013. "Deregulation, vertical unbundling and the performance of China's large coal-fired power plants," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 474-483.
    15. Chen, Zhongfei & Barros, Carlos Pestana & Borges, Maria Rosa, 2015. "A Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 136-144.
    16. Antonio Estache & Liam Wren-Lewis, 2009. "Toward a Theory of Regulation for Developing Countries: Following Jean-Jacques Laffont's Lead," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(3), pages 729-770, September.
    17. Giannis Karagiannis & Vangelis Tzouvelekas, 1999. "Measuring Technical Efficiency with Panel Data: Results from Competing Models," Working Papers 9914, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    18. Karagiannis, Giannis & Tzouvelekas, Vangelis, 2009. "Parametric Measurement of Time-Varying Technical Inefficiency: Results from Competing Models," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 10(1), pages 1-30.
    19. L. Dean Hiebert, 2002. "The Determinants of the Cost Efficiency of Electric Generating Plants: A Stochastic Frontier Approach," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 68(4), pages 935-946, April.
    20. Ma, Chunbo & Zhao, Xiaoli, 2015. "China's electricity market restructuring and technology mandates: Plant-level evidence for changing operational efficiency," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 227-237.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:89:y:2016:i:c:p:11-24. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.