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Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao

Author

Listed:
  • Li, J.S.
  • Chen, G.Q.
  • Lai, T.M.
  • Ahmad, B.
  • Chen, Z.M.
  • Shao, L.
  • Ji, Xi

Abstract

Comprehensive inventory of cities' greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the basis for cities to make appropriate mitigation plans. However, previous studies on cities' GHG emissions consider emissions occurring within the city boundary (Scope 1) and out of boundary electricity emissions (Scope 2), but neglect indirect emissions associated with commodities consumed by cities (Scope 3), resulting in emission leakage. To cope with this problem, a systematic accounting covering all 3 scopes is presented in a case study of Macao for the years 2005–2009, based on the latest embodied emission intensity databases for China and for the world. The results show that total emissions are dominated by indirect emissions mainly embodied in imports, which is 3–4 times direct emissions during the period concerned. It is verified that accounting under Scopes 1 and 2 cannot capture the full picture of cities' emissions, especially cities like Macao which are dominated by service industry and inevitably sustained by massive materials and services from other regions. Our study suggests that Macao should adjust its current GHG mitigation policies which consider only its emissions occurring within its border, as Macao is a net GHG emissions importer. This work is the first assessment of Macao's embodied GHG emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Li, J.S. & Chen, G.Q. & Lai, T.M. & Ahmad, B. & Chen, Z.M. & Shao, L. & Ji, Xi, 2013. "Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 819-833.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:59:y:2013:i:c:p:819-833
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.042
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Li, J.S. & Xia, X.H. & Chen, G.Q. & Alsaedi, A. & Hayat, T., 2016. "Optimal embodied energy abatement strategy for Beijing economy: Based on a three-scale input-output analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 1602-1610.
    2. repec:eee:rensus:v:82:y:2018:i:p3:p:4100-4106 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Li, J.S. & Alsaed, A. & Hayat, T. & Chen, G.Q., 2014. "Energy and carbon emission review for Macao's gaming industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 744-753.
    4. Cai, Bofeng & Zhang, Lixiao, 2014. "Urban CO2 emissions in China: Spatial boundary and performance comparison," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 557-567.
    5. repec:eee:enepol:v:110:y:2017:i:c:p:69-78 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Zhang, L.X. & Wang, C.B. & Bahaj, A.S., 2014. "Carbon emissions by rural energy in China," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 641-649.
    7. Li, J.S. & Chen, G.Q. & Hayat, T. & Alsaedi, A., 2015. "Mercury emissions by Beijing׳s fossil energy consumption: Based on environmentally extended input–output analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 1167-1175.
    8. Zhou, Chuanbin & Huang, Heping & Cao, Aixin & Xu, Wanying, 2015. "Modeling the carbon cycle of the municipal solid waste management system for urban metabolism," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 318(C), pages 150-156.
    9. Chen, G.Q. & Li, J.S. & Chen, B. & Wen, C. & Yang, Q. & Alsaedi, A. & Hayat, T., 2016. "An overview of mercury emissions by global fuel combustion: The impact of international trade," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 345-355.
    10. Li, J.S. & Chen, G.Q. & Wu, X.F. & Hayat, T. & Alsaedi, A. & Ahmad, B., 2014. "Embodied energy assessment for Macao׳s external trade," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 642-653.
    11. repec:eee:energy:v:147:y:2018:i:c:p:858-875 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. repec:eee:enepol:v:117:y:2018:i:c:p:173-183 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:eee:enepol:v:117:y:2018:i:c:p:358-369 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. repec:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:4:p:851-:d:139705 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Chen, B. & Yang, Q. & Li, J.S. & Chen, G.Q., 2017. "Decoupling analysis on energy consumption, embodied GHG emissions and economic growth — The case study of Macao," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 662-672.
    16. Redelbach, Martin & Özdemir, Enver Doruk & Friedrich, Horst E., 2014. "Optimizing battery sizes of plug-in hybrid and extended range electric vehicles for different user types," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 158-168.

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