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On the way to 130 g CO2/km--Estimating the future characteristics of the average European passenger car


  • Fontaras, Georgios
  • Samaras, Zissis


A new average CO2 emissions limit for passenger cars was introduced in EU in 2009 imposing gradual average CO2 emissions reduction to 130Â g/km until 2015. This paper attempts to study possible changes in vehicle characteristics for meeting this limit taking into account the average European passenger car of 2007-2008. For this purpose first the most important factors affecting vehicle fuel consumption over the reference cycle (NEDC) are identified. At a second step, the CO2 benefit from the optimisation of these factors is quantified, through simulations of 6 different passenger cars commonly found in the European fleet. For the simulations Advisor 2002 was employed and validated against published type approval data. The analysis indicated that substantial reductions in vehicle weight, tyre rolling resistance and engine efficiency are necessary to reach even the 2008 target. A 10% reduction in average vehicle weight combined with 10% better aerodynamic characteristics, 20% reduced tyre rolling resistance and a 7.5% increase in average powertrain efficiency can lead to CO2 reductions of approximately 13% (about 138Â g/km based on 2007-2008 fleet-wide performance). Complying with the 130Â g/km within the next six-year timeframe will be a rather difficult task and additional technical measures appear to be necessary.

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  • Fontaras, Georgios & Samaras, Zissis, 2010. "On the way to 130 g CO2/km--Estimating the future characteristics of the average European passenger car," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1826-1833, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:4:p:1826-1833

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ntziachristos, L. & Mellios, G. & Tsokolis, D. & Keller, M. & Hausberger, S. & Ligterink, N.E. & Dilara, P., 2014. "In-use vs. type-approval fuel consumption of current passenger cars in Europe," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 403-411.
    2. Bampatsou, Christina & Zervas, Efthimios, 2011. "Critique of the regulatory limitations of exhaust CO2 emissions from passenger cars in European union," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 7794-7802.
    3. Berggren, Christian & Magnusson, Thomas, 2012. "Reducing automotive emissions—The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 636-643.
    4. Vedrenne, Michel & Pérez, Javier & Lumbreras, Julio & Rodríguez, María Encarnación, 2014. "Life cycle assessment as a policy-support tool: The case of taxis in the city of Madrid," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 185-197.
    5. Fontaras, Georgios & Dilara, Panagiota, 2012. "The evolution of European passenger car characteristics 2000–2010 and its effects on real-world CO2 emissions and CO2 reduction policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 719-730.
    6. Voltes-Dorta, Augusto & Perdiguero, Jordi & Jiménez, Juan Luis, 2013. "Are car manufacturers on the way to reduce CO2 emissions?: A DEA approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 77-86.
    7. Tran, Martino, 2012. "Technology-behavioural modelling of energy innovation diffusion in the UK," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 1-11.
    8. Zhao, Jinxing, 2017. "Research and application of over-expansion cycle (Atkinson and Miller) engines – A review," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 185(P1), pages 300-319.
    9. van den Bijgaart, Inge, 2016. "Essays in environmental economics and policy," Other publications TiSEM 298bee2a-cb08-4173-9fe1-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    10. Schipper, Lee, 2011. "Automobile use, fuel economy and CO2 emissions in industrialized countries: Encouraging trends through 2008?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 358-372, March.
    11. Bahamonde-Birke, Francisco J. & Hanappi, Tibor, 2016. "The potential of electromobility in Austria: Evidence from hybrid choice models under the presence of unreported information," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 30-41.
    12. Francisco J. Bahamonde-Birke & Tibor Hanappi, 2015. "The Potential of Electromobility in Austria: An Analysis Based on Hybrid Choice Models," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1472, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    13. Alvarez, Robert & Schlienger, Peter & Weilenmann, Martin, 2010. "Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6919-6925, November.

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