IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/eneeco/v87y2020ics0140988320300402.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Understanding the ROC transfer payment in the renewable obligation with the recycling mechanism in the United Kingdom

Author

Listed:
  • Li, Jinke
  • Liu, Guy
  • Shao, Jing

Abstract

The Renewable Obligation scheme was implemented to promote renewable energy for electricity supply in the UK over 15 years from 2002 to 2017. Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) were allocated to accredited generators for receiving additional revenues from selling those certificates to electricity suppliers. In particular, a recycling mechanism was employed in this scheme. That is, the penalties on missing ROCs from all suppliers are paid into the buy-out fund, which is then redistributed to suppliers in proportion to the number of ROCs they presented. This mechanism complicated the ROC trading in three aspects. First, the recycling mechanism induces strategic behaviour between suppliers in fulfilling the obligation of purchase of ROCs, leading to the equilibrium of a lower transfer payment from suppliers to generators, compared with the scenario without the mechanism. Secondly, under the recycling mechanism, the existence of vertical integration encourages upstream competition between generators, reducing ROC prices and the transfer payment. Thirdly, suppliers may strategically collude with each other to take the advantage of the recycling mechanism, but the existence of vertical integration weakens the collusion and prevents the worst case of nearly zero transfer payment.

Suggested Citation

  • Li, Jinke & Liu, Guy & Shao, Jing, 2020. "Understanding the ROC transfer payment in the renewable obligation with the recycling mechanism in the United Kingdom," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:87:y:2020:i:c:s0140988320300402
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2020.104701
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140988320300402
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Wood, Geoffrey & Dow, Stephen, 2011. "What lessons have been learned in reforming the Renewables Obligation? An analysis of internal and external failures in UK renewable energy policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2228-2244, May.
    2. Butler, Lucy & Neuhoff, Karsten, 2008. "Comparison of feed-in tariff, quota and auction mechanisms to support wind power development," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1854-1867.
    3. Morthorst, P. E., 2000. "The development of a green certificate market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(15), pages 1085-1094, December.
    4. Antweiler, Werner, 2017. "A two-part feed-in-tariff for intermittent electricity generation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 458-470.
    5. Jenner, Steffen & Groba, Felix & Indvik, Joe, 2013. "Assessing the strength and effectiveness of renewable electricity feed-in tariffs in European Union countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 385-401.
    6. Lancker, Kira & Quaas, Martin F., 2019. "Increasing marginal costs and the efficiency of differentiated feed-in tariffs," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 104-118.
    7. Young, David & Bistline, John, 2018. "The costs and value of renewable portfolio standards in meeting decarbonization goals," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 337-351.
    8. Meyer, Niels I., 2003. "European schemes for promoting renewables in liberalised markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 665-676, June.
    9. MacGill, Iain, 2010. "Electricity market design for facilitating the integration of wind energy: Experience and prospects with the Australian National Electricity Market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3180-3191, July.
    10. May, Nils, 2017. "The impact of wind power support schemes on technology choices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 343-354.
    11. del Rio, Pablo & Gual, Miguel A., 2007. "An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 994-1012, February.
    12. Mitchell, C. & Bauknecht, D. & Connor, P.M., 2006. "Effectiveness through risk reduction: a comparison of the renewable obligation in England and Wales and the feed-in system in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 297-305, February.
    13. Kydes, Andy S., 2007. "Impacts of a renewable portfolio generation standard on US energy markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 809-814, February.
    14. Haas, Reinhard & Panzer, Christian & Resch, Gustav & Ragwitz, Mario & Reece, Gemma & Held, Anne, 2011. "A historical review of promotion strategies for electricity from renewable energy sources in EU countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 1003-1034, February.
    15. Bunn, Derek & Yusupov, Tim, 2015. "The progressive inefficiency of replacing renewable obligation certificates with contracts-for-differences in the UK electricity market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 298-309.
    16. Menanteau, Philippe & Finon, Dominique & Lamy, Marie-Laure, 2003. "Prices versus quantities: choosing policies for promoting the development of renewable energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 799-812, June.
    17. Fouquet, Doerte & Johansson, Thomas B., 2008. "European renewable energy policy at crossroads--Focus on electricity support mechanisms," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 4079-4092, November.
    18. Woodman, B. & Mitchell, C., 2011. "Learning from experience? The development of the Renewables Obligation in England and Wales 2002-2010," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 3914-3921, July.
    19. Berry, Trent & Jaccard, Mark, 2001. "The renewable portfolio standard:: design considerations and an implementation survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 263-277, March.
    20. Wang, Yan, 2006. "Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1209-1220, July.
    21. Schallenberg-Rodriguez, Julieta, 2017. "Renewable electricity support systems: Are feed-in systems taking the lead?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1422-1439.
    22. Jacobsson, Staffan & Bergek, Anna & Finon, Dominique & Lauber, Volkmar & Mitchell, Catherine & Toke, David & Verbruggen, Aviel, 2009. "EU renewable energy support policy: Faith or facts?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2143-2146, June.
    23. Darmani, Anna & Rickne, Annika & Hidalgo, Antonio & Arvidsson, Niklas, 2016. "When outcomes are the reflection of the analysis criteria: A review of the tradable green certificate assessments," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 372-381.
    24. Lipp, Judith, 2007. "Lessons for effective renewable electricity policy from Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5481-5495, November.
    25. Barbose, Galen & Bird, Lori & Heeter, Jenny & Flores-Espino, Francisco & Wiser, Ryan, 2015. "Costs and benefits of renewables portfolio standards in the United States," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 523-533.
    26. Couture, Toby & Gagnon, Yves, 2010. "An analysis of feed-in tariff remuneration models: Implications for renewable energy investment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 955-965, February.
    27. Bergek, Anna & Jacobsson, Staffan, 2010. "Are tradable green certificates a cost-efficient policy driving technical change or a rent-generating machine? Lessons from Sweden 2003-2008," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1255-1271, March.
    28. Lesser, Jonathan A. & Su, Xuejuan, 2008. "Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 981-990, March.
    29. Toke, David & Breukers, Sylvia & Wolsink, Maarten, 2008. "Wind power deployment outcomes: How can we account for the differences?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 1129-1147, May.
    30. Upton, Gregory B. & Snyder, Brian F., 2017. "Funding renewable energy: An analysis of renewable portfolio standards," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 205-216.
    31. Verbruggen, Aviel, 2009. "Performance evaluation of renewable energy support policies, applied on Flanders' tradable certificates system," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1385-1394, April.
    32. Zhou, Huizhong, 2012. "Impacts of renewables obligation with recycling of the buy-out fund," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 284-291.
    33. Mario Ragwitz & Simone Steinhilber, 2014. "Effectiveness and efficiency of support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources," Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 213-229, March.
    34. Nicolini, Marcella & Tavoni, Massimo, 2017. "Are renewable energy subsidies effective? Evidence from Europe," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 412-423.
    35. Mabee, Warren E. & Mannion, Justine & Carpenter, Tom, 2012. "Comparing the feed-in tariff incentives for renewable electricity in Ontario and Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 480-489.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Shen, Neng & Deng, Rumeng & Liao, Haolan & Shevchuk, Oleksandr, 2020. "Mapping renewable energy subsidy policy research published from 1997 to 2018: A scientometric review," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    2. Polzin, Friedemann & Egli, Florian & Steffen, Bjarne & Schmidt, Tobias S., 2019. "How do policies mobilize private finance for renewable energy?—A systematic review with an investor perspective," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 236(C), pages 1249-1268.
    3. del Río, Pablo & Bleda, Mercedes, 2012. "Comparing the innovation effects of support schemes for renewable electricity technologies: A function of innovation approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 272-282.
    4. Pérez de Arce, Miguel & Sauma, Enzo & Contreras, Javier, 2016. "Renewable energy policy performance in reducing CO2 emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 272-280.
    5. Paul Lehmann & Felix Creutzig & Melf-Hinrich Ehlers & Nele Friedrichsen & Clemens Heuson & Lion Hirth & Robert Pietzcker, 2012. "Carbon Lock-Out: Advancing Renewable Energy Policy in Europe," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(2), pages 1-32, February.
    6. Schallenberg-Rodriguez, Julieta, 2017. "Renewable electricity support systems: Are feed-in systems taking the lead?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1422-1439.
    7. Sakah, Marriette & Diawuo, Felix Amankwah & Katzenbach, Rolf & Gyamfi, Samuel, 2017. "Towards a sustainable electrification in Ghana: A review of renewable energy deployment policies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 544-557.
    8. Nicolini, Marcella & Tavoni, Massimo, 2017. "Are renewable energy subsidies effective? Evidence from Europe," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 412-423.
    9. Darmani, Anna & Rickne, Annika & Hidalgo, Antonio & Arvidsson, Niklas, 2016. "When outcomes are the reflection of the analysis criteria: A review of the tradable green certificate assessments," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 372-381.
    10. Martin, Nigel J. & Rice, John L., 2017. "Examining the use of concept analysis and mapping software for renewable energy feed-in tariff design," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 211-220.
    11. Miguel Pérez de Arce and Enzo Sauma, 2016. "Comparison of Incentive Policies for Renewable Energy in an Oligopolistic Market with Price-Responsive Demand," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    12. Walker, S.L., 2012. "Can the GB feed-in tariff deliver the expected 2% of electricity from renewable sources?," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 383-388.
    13. Stokes, Leah C., 2013. "The politics of renewable energy policies: The case of feed-in tariffs in Ontario, Canada," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 490-500.
    14. Verbruggen, Aviel & Lauber, Volkmar, 2012. "Assessing the performance of renewable electricity support instruments," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 635-644.
    15. Martin, Nigel & Rice, John, 2013. "The solar photovoltaic feed-in tariff scheme in New South Wales, Australia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 697-706.
    16. Bergek, Anna & Jacobsson, Staffan, 2010. "Are tradable green certificates a cost-efficient policy driving technical change or a rent-generating machine? Lessons from Sweden 2003-2008," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1255-1271, March.
    17. Youhyun Lee & Inseok Seo, 2019. "Sustainability of a Policy Instrument: Rethinking the Renewable Portfolio Standard in South Korea," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(11), pages 1-19, May.
    18. Aquila, Giancarlo & Pamplona, Edson de Oliveira & Queiroz, Anderson Rodrigo de & Rotela Junior, Paulo & Fonseca, Marcelo Nunes, 2017. "An overview of incentive policies for the expansion of renewable energy generation in electricity power systems and the Brazilian experience," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1090-1098.
    19. Schaefer, Manuel S. & Lloyd, Bob & Stephenson, Janet R., 2012. "The suitability of a feed-in tariff for wind energy in New Zealand—A study based on stakeholders' perspectives," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 80-91.
    20. Margaux ESCOFFIER & Emmanuel HACHE & Valérie MIGNON & Anthony PARIS, 2019. "Determinants of solar photovoltaic deployment in the electricity mix: Do oil prices really matter?," LEO Working Papers / DR LEO 2729, Orleans Economics Laboratory / Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orleans (LEO), University of Orleans.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Renewable obligation; Recycling mechanism; Strategic behaviour; Compliance; Vertical integration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C70 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - General
    • H32 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - Firm
    • L94 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Electric Utilities
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:87:y:2020:i:c:s0140988320300402. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nithya Sathishkumar). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.