IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v39y2011i7p3914-3921.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Learning from experience? The development of the Renewables Obligation in England and Wales 2002-2010

Author

Listed:
  • Woodman, B.
  • Mitchell, C.

Abstract

The UK has enviable renewable resources, both onshore (wind) and offshore (wind, wave and tidal) (The Offshore Valuation Group, 2010). The government has had policy mechanisms in place since 1990 to encourage these resources to be developed. The current mechanism, the Renewables Obligation (RO), was specifically designed to emphasise competition and therefore to fit in with the UK's overall strategic approach to energy policy. However, as yet, it has not delivered the capacity that it was designed to do, and as a result the UK faces a difficult challenge in attempting to meet European-wide renewable energy targets for 2020, as well as longer term decarbonisation targets. This paper explores some of the major reasons why the RO has performed so poorly to date and considers the prospects for improvement up to 2020. It concludes that the strategic emphasis on competition in the support mechanisms has played a key role in limiting renewables development, but that the mechanism has changed significantly since it was introduced. However, these changes, together with proposals for electricity market reform, still do not address important elements of risk in comparison with a standard Feed In Tariff.

Suggested Citation

  • Woodman, B. & Mitchell, C., 2011. "Learning from experience? The development of the Renewables Obligation in England and Wales 2002-2010," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 3914-3921, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:7:p:3914-3921
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511002710
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Foxon, T. J. & Gross, R. & Chase, A. & Howes, J. & Arnall, A. & Anderson, D., 2005. "UK innovation systems for new and renewable energy technologies: drivers, barriers and systems failures," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(16), pages 2123-2137, November.
    2. Helm, Dieter, 2004. "Energy, the State, and the Market: British Energy Policy since 1979," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199270743.
    3. Mitchell, Catherine & Connor, Peter, 2004. "Renewable energy policy in the UK 1990-2003," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(17), pages 1935-1947, November.
    4. Mitchell, C. & Bauknecht, D. & Connor, P.M., 2006. "Effectiveness through risk reduction: a comparison of the renewable obligation in England and Wales and the feed-in system in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 297-305, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Nolden, Colin, 2013. "Governing community energy—Feed-in tariffs and the development of community wind energy schemes in the United Kingdom and Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 543-552.
    2. del Río, Pablo & Bleda, Mercedes, 2012. "Comparing the innovation effects of support schemes for renewable electricity technologies: A function of innovation approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 272-282.
    3. Paul Lehmann & Felix Creutzig & Melf-Hinrich Ehlers & Nele Friedrichsen & Clemens Heuson & Lion Hirth & Robert Pietzcker, 2012. "Carbon Lock-Out: Advancing Renewable Energy Policy in Europe," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(2), pages 1-32, February.
    4. Connor, Peter M. & Xie, Lei & Lowes, Richard & Britton, Jessica & Richardson, Thomas, 2015. "The development of renewable heating policy in the United Kingdom," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 733-744.
    5. Roques, Fabien & Finon, Dominique, 2017. "Adapting electricity markets to decarbonisation and security of supply objectives: Toward a hybrid regime?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 584-596.
    6. Xiaojia Guo & Alexandros Beskos & Afzal Siddiqui, 2016. "The natural hedge of a gas-fired power plant," Computational Management Science, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 63-86, January.
    7. Kern, Florian & Smith, Adrian & Shaw, Chris & Raven, Rob & Verhees, Bram, 2014. "From laggard to leader: Explaining offshore wind developments in the UK," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 635-646.
    8. Geels, Frank W. & Kern, Florian & Fuchs, Gerhard & Hinderer, Nele & Kungl, Gregor & Mylan, Josephine & Neukirch, Mario & Wassermann, Sandra, 2016. "The enactment of socio-technical transition pathways: A reformulated typology and a comparative multi-level analysis of the German and UK low-carbon electricity transitions (1990–2014)," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 896-913.
    9. Yoon, Jong-Han & Sim, Kwang-ho, 2015. "Why is South Korea's renewable energy policy failing? A qualitative evaluation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 369-379.
    10. Lockwood, Matthew, 2016. "The UK's Levy Control Framework for renewable electricity support: Effects and significance," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 193-201.
    11. Zhou, Huizhong, 2012. "Impacts of renewables obligation with recycling of the buy-out fund," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 284-291.
    12. Cherrington, R. & Goodship, V. & Longfield, A. & Kirwan, K., 2013. "The feed-in tariff in the UK: A case study focus on domestic photovoltaic systems," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 421-426.
    13. repec:eee:rensus:v:79:y:2017:i:c:p:544-557 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Bunn, Derek & Yusupov, Tim, 2015. "The progressive inefficiency of replacing renewable obligation certificates with contracts-for-differences in the UK electricity market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 298-309.
    15. repec:eee:enepol:v:108:y:2017:i:c:p:715-730 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. repec:eee:rensus:v:76:y:2017:i:c:p:1422-1439 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Pérez de Arce, Miguel & Sauma, Enzo & Contreras, Javier, 2016. "Renewable energy policy performance in reducing CO2 emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 272-280.
    18. Verbruggen, Aviel & Lauber, Volkmar, 2012. "Assessing the performance of renewable electricity support instruments," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 635-644.
    19. Connor, Peter & Bürger, Veit & Beurskens, Luuk & Ericsson, Karin & Egger, Christiane, 2013. "Devising renewable heat policy: Overview of support options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 3-16.
    20. Connor, Peter M. & Baker, Philip E. & Xenias, Dimitrios & Balta-Ozkan, Nazmiye & Axon, Colin J. & Cipcigan, Liana, 2014. "Policy and regulation for smart grids in the United Kingdom," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 269-286.
    21. Rocha, Paula & Kaut, Michal & Siddiqui, Afzal S., 2016. "Energy-efficient building retrofits: An assessment of regulatory proposals under uncertainty," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 278-287.
    22. Balta-Ozkan, Nazmiye & Yildirim, Julide & Connor, Peter M., 2015. "Regional distribution of photovoltaic deployment in the UK and its determinants: A spatial econometric approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 417-429.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:7:p:3914-3921. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.