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The impact of the European Union emission trading scheme on the electricity-generation sector

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  • Kirat, Djamel
  • Ahamada, Ibrahim

Abstract

In order to comply with their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, France and Germany participate in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) which predominantly concerns the electricity-generation sectors. In this paper we ask whether the EU ETS provides the appropriate economic incentives to produce an efficient system in line with the Kyoto commitments. If so, electricity producers in the countries concerned should include the price of carbon in their cost functions. After identifying different sub-periods of the EU ETS during its pilot phase (2005-2007), we model the prices of various electricity contracts in France and Germany and look at the volatility of electricity prices around their fundamentals while evaluating the correlation between electricity prices in the two countries. We find that electricity producers in both countries were constrained to include the carbon price in their cost functions during the first two years of the EU ETS. Over this period, German electricity producers were more constrained than their French counterparts, and the inclusion of the carbon price in the electricity-generation cost function was much more stable in Germany than in France. We also find evidence of fuel switching in electricity generation in Germany after the collapse of the carbon market. Furthermore, the European market for emission allowances has greatly contributed to the partial alignment of the wholesale price of electricity in France to that in Germany.

Suggested Citation

  • Kirat, Djamel & Ahamada, Ibrahim, 2011. "The impact of the European Union emission trading scheme on the electricity-generation sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 995-1003, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:33:y:2011:i:5:p:995-1003
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Rübbelke, Dirk & Vögele, Stefan, 2013. "Effects of carbon dioxide capture and storage in Germany on European electricity exchange and welfare," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 582-588.
    2. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00673918 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Ibrahim Ahamada & Djamel Kirat, 2012. "Evidence of a nonlinear effect of the EU ETS on the electricity-generation sector," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00717629, HAL.
    4. Voigt, Sebastian & De Cian, Enrica & Schymura, Michael & Verdolini, Elena, 2014. "Energy intensity developments in 40 major economies: Structural change or technology improvement?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 47-62.
    5. Golombek, Rolf & Kittelsen, Sverre A.C. & Rosendahl, Knut Einar, 2013. "Price and welfare effects of emission quota allocation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, pages 568-580.
    6. Franco, Carlos J. & Castaneda, Monica & Dyner, Isaac, 2015. "Simulating the new British Electricity-Market Reform," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 245(1), pages 273-285.
    7. Gavard, Claire & Kirat, Djamel, 2017. "Flexibility in the market for international carbon credits and price dynamics difference with European allowances," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-054, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    8. repec:eee:rensus:v:81:y:2018:i:p2:p:2563-2583 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Djamel Kirat & Ibrahim Ahamada, 2016. "Evidence for threshold eff​ects in the pass-through of carbon prices to wholesale electricity prices," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(4), pages 2350-2364.
    10. Ibrahim Ahamada & Djamel Kirat, 2012. "The impact of phase II of the EU ETS on the electricity-generation sector," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00673918, HAL.
    11. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00717629 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Claire Gavard & Djamel Kirat, 2015. "Flexibility in the Market for International Carbon Credits and Price. Dynamics Difference with European Allowances," Working Papers 2015.03, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    13. Li, Y.P. & Huang, G.H. & Li, M.W., 2014. "An integrated optimization modeling approach for planning emission trading and clean-energy development under uncertainty," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 31-46.
    14. Frieder Mokinski & Nikolas Wölfing, 2014. "The effect of regulatory scrutiny: Asymmetric cost pass-through in power wholesale and its end," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, pages 175-193.
    15. Donze, Jocelyn & Gunnes, Trude, 2011. "Should Economists Listen to Educational Psychologists? Some Economics of Student Motivation," TSE Working Papers 11-247, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).

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