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The impact of the European Union emission trading scheme on the electricity-generation sector

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  • Kirat, Djamel
  • Ahamada, Ibrahim

Abstract

In order to comply with their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, France and Germany participate in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) which predominantly concerns the electricity-generation sectors. In this paper we ask whether the EU ETS provides the appropriate economic incentives to produce an efficient system in line with the Kyoto commitments. If so, electricity producers in the countries concerned should include the price of carbon in their cost functions. After identifying different sub-periods of the EU ETS during its pilot phase (2005-2007), we model the prices of various electricity contracts in France and Germany and look at the volatility of electricity prices around their fundamentals while evaluating the correlation between electricity prices in the two countries. We find that electricity producers in both countries were constrained to include the carbon price in their cost functions during the first two years of the EU ETS. Over this period, German electricity producers were more constrained than their French counterparts, and the inclusion of the carbon price in the electricity-generation cost function was much more stable in Germany than in France. We also find evidence of fuel switching in electricity generation in Germany after the collapse of the carbon market. Furthermore, the European market for emission allowances has greatly contributed to the partial alignment of the wholesale price of electricity in France to that in Germany.

Suggested Citation

  • Kirat, Djamel & Ahamada, Ibrahim, 2011. "The impact of the European Union emission trading scheme on the electricity-generation sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 995-1003, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:33:y:2011:i:5:p:995-1003
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Golombek, Rolf & Kittelsen, Sverre A.C. & Rosendahl, Knut Einar, 2013. "Price and welfare effects of emission quota allocation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 568-580.
    2. Ibrahim Ahamada & Djamel Kirat, 2012. "Evidence of a nonlinear effect of the EU ETS on the electricity-generation sector," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 12047, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    3. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00717629 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Franco, Carlos J. & Castaneda, Monica & Dyner, Isaac, 2015. "Simulating the new British Electricity-Market Reform," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 245(1), pages 273-285.
    5. George Daskalakis, Lazaros Symeonidis, Raphael N. Markellos, 2015. "Electricity futures prices in an emissions constrained economy: Evidence from European power markets," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    6. Ibrahim Ahamada & Djamel Kirat, 2012. "The impact of phase II of the EU ETS on the electricity-generation sector," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 12007, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    7. Gavard, Claire & Kirat, Djamel, 2017. "Flexibility in the market for international carbon credits and price dynamics difference with European allowances," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-054, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    8. Hongbo Duan, Lei Zhu, Gürkan Kumbaroglu, and Ying Fan, 2016. "Regional Opportunities for China To Go Low-Carbon: Results from the REEC Model," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(China Spe).
    9. Rübbelke, Dirk & Vögele, Stefan, 2013. "Effects of carbon dioxide capture and storage in Germany on European electricity exchange and welfare," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 582-588.
    10. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00673918 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Ralf Martin & Mirabelle Muûls & Ulrich J. Wagner, 2016. "The Impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on Regulated Firms: What Is the Evidence after Ten Years?," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10(1), pages 129-148.
    12. Claire Gavard & Djamel Kirat, 2015. "Flexibility in the Market for International Carbon Credits and Price. Dynamics Difference with European Allowances," Working Papers 2015.03, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    13. Djamel Kirat & Ibrahim Ahamada, 2016. "Evidence for threshold eff​ects in the pass-through of carbon prices to wholesale electricity prices," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(4), pages 2350-2364.
    14. Li, Y.P. & Huang, G.H. & Li, M.W., 2014. "An integrated optimization modeling approach for planning emission trading and clean-energy development under uncertainty," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 31-46.
    15. Frieder Mokinski & Nikolas Wölfing, 2014. "The effect of regulatory scrutiny: Asymmetric cost pass-through in power wholesale and its end," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 175-193, April.

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