IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Valuing the flexibility of investing in security process innovations


  • Khansa, Lara
  • Liginlal, Divakaran


In this paper, we develop a decision model of a firm's optimal strategy for investment in security process innovations (SPIs) when confronted with a sequence of malicious attacks. The model incorporates real options as a methodology to capture the flexibility embedded in such investment decisions. SPIs, when seamlessly integrated with the organization's overall business dynamics, induce organizational learning and provide the flexibility of switching to more suitable technologies as the environment of malicious attacks changes. The theoretical contribution of this paper is a mathematical model of the invest-to-learn and switching options generated upon early investment in flexible SPIs. The practical significance of the paper is the application of a binomial lattice model to approximate the continuous-time model, resulting in an easy to use decision aid for managers.

Suggested Citation

  • Khansa, Lara & Liginlal, Divakaran, 2009. "Valuing the flexibility of investing in security process innovations," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 192(1), pages 216-235, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:192:y:2009:i:1:p:216-235

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Huisman, Kuno J. M. & Kort, Peter M., 2004. "Strategic technology adoption taking into account future technological improvements: A real options approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 159(3), pages 705-728, December.
    2. Dangl, Thomas, 1999. "Investment and capacity choice under uncertain demand," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 415-428, September.
    3. De Reyck, Bert & Degraeve, Zeger & Vandenborre, Roger, 2008. "Project options valuation with net present value and decision tree analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 184(1), pages 341-355, January.
    4. Robert G. Fichman & Chris F. Kemerer, 1997. "The Assimilation of Software Process Innovations: An Organizational Learning Perspective," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(10), pages 1345-1363, October.
    5. Clark, Ephraim & Easaw, Joshy Z., 2007. "Optimal access pricing for natural monopoly networks when costs are sunk and revenues are uncertain," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 178(2), pages 595-602, April.
    6. Grenadier, Steven R. & Weiss, Allen M., 1997. "Investment in technological innovations: An option pricing approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 397-416, June.
    7. Van Landeghem, Rik R. G., 1989. "Option analysis: Making better decision faster," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 318-328, February.
    8. Pennings, Enrico & Lint, Onno, 2000. "Market entry, phased rollout or abandonment? A real option approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 125-138, July.
    9. Giacometti, Rosella & Teocchi, Mariangela, 2005. "On pricing of credit spread options," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 163(1), pages 52-64, May.
    10. Alberto Moel, 2002. "When Are Real Options Exercised? An Empirical Study of Mine Closings," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(1), pages 35-64, March.
    11. Martzoukos, Spiros H. & Trigeorgis, Lenos, 2002. "Real (investment) options with multiple sources of rare events," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 136(3), pages 696-706, February.
    12. Lenos Trigeorgis, 1993. "Real Options and Interactions With Financial Flexibility," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 22(3), Fall.
    13. Eduardo S. Schwartz & Carlos Zozaya-Gorostiza, 2003. "Investment Under Uncertainty in Information Technology: Acquisition and Development Projects," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(1), pages 57-70, January.
    14. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:transe:v:107:y:2017:i:c:p:120-140 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:spr:infosf:v:19:y:2017:i:5:d:10.1007_s10796-016-9648-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Daniel Schatz & Rabih Bashroush, 0. "Economic valuation for information security investment: a systematic literature review," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-24.
    4. Jürgen Harrer & Andreas Wald, 2016. "Levers of enterprise security control: a study on the use, measurement and value contribution," Journal of Management Control: Zeitschrift für Planung und Unternehmenssteuerung, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 7-32, February.
    5. Nadarajah, Selvaprabu & Margot, François & Secomandi, Nicola, 2017. "Comparison of least squares Monte Carlo methods with applications to energy real options," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 256(1), pages 196-204.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:192:y:2009:i:1:p:216-235. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.