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Economic growth and environmental efficiency: Evidence from US regions


  • Halkos, George E.
  • Tzeremes, Nickolaos G.


This paper proposes a conditional directional distance function estimator in order to examine the link between regional environmental efficiency and GDP per capita levels. As an illustrative example we apply our model to US regional data revealing an inverted ‘U’ shape relationship between regional environmental efficiency and per capita income. The results derived from a non-parametric regression indicate a turning point at 49,000 dollars.

Suggested Citation

  • Halkos, George E. & Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2013. "Economic growth and environmental efficiency: Evidence from US regions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(1), pages 48-52.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:120:y:2013:i:1:p:48-52 DOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2013.03.043

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Halkos, George E. & Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2014. "Public sector transparency and countries’ environmental performance: A nonparametric analysis," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 19-37.
    2. Chen, Po-Chi & Yu, Ming-Miin & Chang, Ching-Cheng & Hsu, Shih-Hsun & Managi, Shunsuke, 2015. "The enhanced Russell-based directional distance measure with undesirable outputs: Numerical example considering CO2 emissions," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 30-40.
    3. Halkos, George & Sundström, Aksel & Tzeremes, Nickolaos, 2013. "Environmental performance and quality of governance: A non-parametric analysis of the NUTS 1-regions in France, Germany and the UK," MPRA Paper 48890, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Halkos, George & Polemis, Michael, 2016. "The good, the bad and the ugly? Balancing environmental and economic impacts towards efficiency," MPRA Paper 72132, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. George Halkos & George Papageorgiou, 2016. "Spatial environmental efficiency indicators in regional waste generation: a nonparametric approach," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 59(1), pages 62-78, January.
    6. Christos Kollias & Stephanos Papadamou, 2016. "Environmentally Responsible and Conventional Market Indices’ Reaction to Natural and Anthropogenic Adversity: A Comparative Analysis," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 138(3), pages 493-505, October.
    7. Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2015. "Efficiency dynamics in Indian banking: A conditional directional distance approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 240(3), pages 807-818.
    8. Halkos, George & Polemis, Michael, 2016. "Examining the impact of financial development on the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis," MPRA Paper 75368, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Chen, Chih Cheng, 2017. "Measuring departmental and overall regional performance: applying the multi-activity DEA model to Taiwan׳s cities/counties," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 60-80.

    More about this item


    Regional environmental efficiency; Directional distance function; Conditional measures; US regions;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes


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