Are the effects of monetary policy on output asymmetric in Pakistan?
This research mainly investigates whether the response of output to monetary policy actions is symmetric or not. We test all the three main forms of asymmetries in the impact of monetary policy discussed in the literature so far. Also, we make some hybrid cases to go further in the detail of the tested asymmetries. While mainly following the methodology given by Cover (1992), we make some necessary variations to the procedure. We find evidence in the favor of asymmetry in the effects of monetary policy actions on output. Our results indicate that monetary policy actions seem ineffective in periods of high growth while having strong effects on output during low growth periods. Further, output responds strongly to tight monetary policy actions when the economy is in low growth phase. We also find some support for the argument that negative money supply changes affect output whereas positive changes do not. The findings also suggest that output responds only to small monetary policy shocks and big shocks do not significantly explain the variations in the transitory component of output. The results of hybrid case give further insight that output strongly responds to small negative monetary policy shocks. Wald test rejects the hypothesis of symmetry in the favor of asymmetry in the response of output to monetary policy actions in all the cases.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Garcia, R. & Schaller, H., 1995.
"Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Asymmetric?,"
Cahiers de recherche
9505, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Garcia, R. & Schaller, H., 1995. "Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Asymmetric?," Cahiers de recherche 9505, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- René Garcia & Huntley Schaller, 1999. "Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Asymmetric?," Carleton Economic Papers 99-17, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
- René Garcia & Huntley Schaller, 1995. "Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Asymmetric?," CIRANO Working Papers 95s-06, CIRANO.
- Frederic S. Mishkin, 1980.
"Does Anticipated Monetary Policy Matter? An Econometric Investigation,"
NBER Working Papers
0506, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mishkin, Frederic S, 1982. "Does Anticipated Monetary Policy Matter? An Econometric Investigation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(1), pages 22-51, February.
- Christiano, Lawrence J. & Eichenbaum, Martin & Evans, Charles L., 1999.
"Monetary policy shocks: What have we learned and to what end?,"
Handbook of Macroeconomics,
in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 65-148
- Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles L. Evans, 1997. "Monetary policy shocks: what have we learned and to what end?," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues WP-97-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles L. Evans, 1998. "Monetary Policy Shocks: What Have We Learned and to What End?," NBER Working Papers 6400, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:fth:harver:1418 is not listed on IDEAS
- Robert J. Barro, 1976.
"Unanticipated Money Growth and Unemployment in the United States,"
234, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Barro, Robert J, 1977. "Unanticipated Money Growth and Unemployment in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 101-115, March.
- Sajawal Khan & Idrees Khawaja, 2011. "Predation, Institutional Quality and Economic Growth," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 50(4), pages 809-820.
- Morten Ravn & Martin Sola, 1996. "A Reconsideration of the Empirical Evidence on the Asymmetric Effects of Money-supply shocks: Positive vs. Negative or Big vs. Small," Archive Discussion Papers 9606, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.
- James Peery Cover, 1992. "Asymmetric Effects of Positive and Negative Money-Supply Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(4), pages 1261-1282.
- Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
- J. Bradford DeLong & Lawrence H. Summers, 1988. "How Does Macroeconomic Policy Affect Output?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(2), pages 433-494.
- Karras, Georgios, 1996. "Are the Output Effects of Monetary Policy Asymmetric? Evidence from a Sample of European Countries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 267-278, May.
- Barro, Robert J, 1978.
"Unanticipated Money, Output, and the Price Level in the United States,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(4), pages 549-580, August.
- Barro, Robert J., 1978. "Unanticipated Money, Output, and the Price Level in the United States," Scholarly Articles 3450988, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Frydman, Roman & Rappoport, Peter, 1987. "Is the Distinction between Anticipated and Unanticipated Money Growth Relevant in Explaining Aggregate Output?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 693-703, September.
- Wasim Shahid Malik, 2007.
"Monetary Policy Objectives in Pakistan : An Empirical Investigation,"
Macroeconomics Working Papers
22212, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
- Wasim Shahid Malik, 2007. "Monetary Policy Objectives in Pakistan: An Empirical Investigation," PIDE-Working Papers 2007:35, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Weise, Charles L, 1999. "The Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy: A Nonlinear Vector Autoregression Approach," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(1), pages 85-108, February.
- Lo, Ming Chien & Piger, Jeremy, 2005.
"Is the Response of Output to Monetary Policy Asymmetric? Evidence from a Regime-Switching Coefficients Model,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(5), pages 865-886, October.
- Ming Chien Lo & Jeremy M. Piger, 2003. "Is the response of output to monetary policy asymmetric? evidence from a regime-switching coefficients model," Working Papers 2001-022, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Donald P. Morgan, 1993. "Asymmetric effects of monetary policy," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 21-33.
- Karras, Georgios, 1996. "Why are the effects of money-supply shocks asymmetric? Convex aggregate supply or "pushing on a string"?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 605-619.
- Shen, Chung-Hua, 2000. "Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Asymmetric? The Case of Taiwan," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 197-218, March.
- Thoma, Mark A., 1994. "Subsample instability and asymmetries in money-income causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 279-306.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:32:y:2013:i:c:p:1-9. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.