IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Agricultural policy and its impact on fuel usage: Empirical evidence from farm household analysis


  • Chang, Hung-Hao
  • Mishra, Ashok K.
  • Livingston, Michael


Off-farm work is a growing reality in the US agricultural sector as a whole. Another staple program in the US agriculture is the use of crop insurance. This paper assesses hitherto unaddressed issues of fuel consumption and hence pollution generated by farm households associated with off-farm work and crop insurance. We applied a quantile regression method on a unique national farm-level survey data to address the fuel consumption issues. Results indicate that off-farm work by operators tends to decrease fuel expenses. In contrast, households with crop insurance had higher fuel consumption thereby increasing fuel usage. Finally, our study shows that the net effect of these two activities resulted in an increase in the pollution level.

Suggested Citation

  • Chang, Hung-Hao & Mishra, Ashok K. & Livingston, Michael, 2011. "Agricultural policy and its impact on fuel usage: Empirical evidence from farm household analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 348-353, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:88:y:2011:i:1:p:348-353

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. E. Phimister & D. Roberts, 2006. "The Effect of Off-farm Work on the Intensity of Agricultural Production," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 34(4), pages 493-515, August.
    2. Ashok K. Mishra & Barry K. Goodwin, 1997. "Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off-Farm Labor," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(3), pages 880-887.
    3. Dewbre, Joe & Mishra, Ashok K., 2007. "Impact of Program Payments on Time Allocation and Farm Household Income," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 39(03), December.
    4. Brown, Dennis M. & McGath, Christopher & Stenberg, Peter L., 2008. "Farm Operators Turn to Energy-Saving Practices," Amber Waves, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, April.
    5. Charles Calhoun, 1989. "Estimating the Distribution of Desired Family Size and Excess Fertility," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(4), pages 709-724.
    6. Powell, James L., 1986. "Censored regression quantiles," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 143-155, June.
    7. John K. Horowitz & Erik Lichtenberg, 1993. "Insurance, Moral Hazard, and Chemical Use in Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 75(4), pages 926-935.
    8. Horowitz, Joel L., 2001. "The bootstrap and hypothesis tests in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 37-40, January.
    9. Joe Dewbre, 2006. "The Impact of Coupled and Decoupled Government Subsidies on Off-Farm Labor Participation of U.S. Farm Operators," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(2), pages 393-408.
    10. Vincent H. Smith & Barry K. Goodwin, 1996. "Crop Insurance, Moral Hazard, and Agricultural Chemical Use," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(2), pages 428-438.
    11. Hisham El-Osta & Ashok Mishra & Mary Ahearn, 2004. "Labor Supply by Farm Operators Under “Decoupled” Farm Program Payments," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 367-385, August.
    12. Horowitz, Joel L., 2001. "The Bootstrap," Handbook of Econometrics,in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 52, pages 3159-3228 Elsevier.
    13. Van Dusen, M. Eric & Taylor, J. Edward, 2005. "Missing markets and crop diversity: evidence from Mexico," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(04), pages 513-531, August.
    14. Härdle, Wolfgang & Horowitz, Joel L. & Kreiss, Jens-Peter, 2001. "Bootstrap methods for time series," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 2001,59, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
    15. Ashok Mishra & Barry Goodwin, 2006. "Revenue insurance purchase decisions of farmers," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(2), pages 149-159.
    16. Powell, James L., 1984. "Least absolute deviations estimation for the censored regression model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-325, July.
    17. Loehman, Edna T. & Nelson, Carl H., 1992. "Optimal Risk Management, Risk Aversion, And Production Function Properties," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 17(02), December.
    18. Vincent H. Smith & Alan E. Baquet, 1996. "The Demand for Multiple Peril Crop Insurance: Evidence from Montana Wheat Farms," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(1), pages 189-201.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Bjornsen, Hild-Marte & Mishra, Ashok K., 2012. "Off-farm Employment and Farming Efficiency in Modern Agriculture: A Dynamic Panel Analysis," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 124742, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    2. Rakhshanda, Kousar & Awudu, Abdulai, 2013. "Impacts of rural non-farm employment on household welfare in Pakistan," 2013 Second Congress, June 6-7, 2013, Parma, Italy 149890, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).
    3. Mishra, Ashok K. & Chang, Hung-Hao, 2012. "Can off farm employment affect the privatization of social safety net? The case of self-employed farm households," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 94-101.
    4. Kousar, Rakhshanda & Abdulai, Awudu, 2014. "Impact of non-farm work and land tenancy contracts on soil conservation measures," 88th Annual Conference, April 9-11, 2014, AgroParisTech, Paris, France 170522, Agricultural Economics Society.
    5. D'Antoni, Jeremy M. & Mishra, Ashok K. & Joo, Hyunjeong, 2012. "Welfare Implications of a Reduction in Government Payments: The Role of Fringe Benefits," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 124766, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    6. Mikulandrić, Robert & Vermeulen, Brecht & Nicolai, Bart & Saeys, Wouter, 2016. "Modelling of thermal processes during extrusion based densification of agricultural biomass residues," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 1316-1331.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:88:y:2011:i:1:p:348-353. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.