IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/appene/v184y2016icp751-758.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

Author

Listed:
  • Ji, Ling
  • Liang, Sai
  • Qu, Shen
  • Zhang, Yanxia
  • Xu, Ming
  • Jia, Xiaoping
  • Jia, Yingtao
  • Niu, Dongxiao
  • Yuan, Jiahai
  • Hou, Yong
  • Wang, Haikun
  • Chiu, Anthony S.F.
  • Hu, Xiaojun

Abstract

Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

Suggested Citation

  • Ji, Ling & Liang, Sai & Qu, Shen & Zhang, Yanxia & Xu, Ming & Jia, Xiaoping & Jia, Yingtao & Niu, Dongxiao & Yuan, Jiahai & Hou, Yong & Wang, Haikun & Chiu, Anthony S.F. & Hu, Xiaojun, 2016. "Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 751-758.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:184:y:2016:i:c:p:751-758
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.065
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261915012921
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.065?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Aichele, Rahel & Felbermayr, Gabriel, 2012. "Kyoto and the carbon footprint of nations," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 336-354.
    2. Erik Dietzenbacher & Bart Los, 1998. "Structural Decomposition Techniques: Sense and Sensitivity," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(4), pages 307-324.
    3. Hawkes, A.D., 2014. "Long-run marginal CO2 emissions factors in national electricity systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 197-205.
    4. Xia, Yan & Fan, Ying & Yang, Cuihong, 2015. "Assessing the impact of foreign content in China’s exports on the carbon outsourcing hypothesis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 296-307.
    5. Soimakallio, Sampo & Kiviluoma, Juha & Saikku, Laura, 2011. "The complexity and challenges of determining GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from grid electricity consumption and conservation in LCA (life cycle assessment) – A methodological review," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 6705-6713.
    6. Lenzen, Manfred, 2007. "Structural path analysis of ecosystem networks," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 200(3), pages 334-342.
    7. Messagie, Maarten & Mertens, Jan & Oliveira, Luis & Rangaraju, Surendraprabu & Sanfelix, Javier & Coosemans, Thierry & Van Mierlo, Joeri & Macharis, Cathy, 2014. "The hourly life cycle carbon footprint of electricity generation in Belgium, bringing a temporal resolution in life cycle assessment," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 469-476.
    8. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1858-1864, June.
    9. Zhang, Ming & Liu, Xiao & Wang, Wenwen & Zhou, Min, 2013. "Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 159-165.
    10. Geng, Yong & Zhao, Hongyan & Liu, Zhu & Xue, Bing & Fujita, Tsuyoshi & Xi, Fengming, 2013. "Exploring driving factors of energy-related CO2 emissions in Chinese provinces: A case of Liaoning," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 820-826.
    11. Nian, Victor & Chou, S.K. & Su, Bin & Bauly, John, 2014. "Life cycle analysis on carbon emissions from power generation – The nuclear energy example," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 68-82.
    12. Zafirakis, Dimitrios & Chalvatzis, Konstantinos J. & Baiocchi, Giovanni, 2015. "Embodied CO2 emissions and cross-border electricity trade in Europe: Rebalancing burden sharing with energy storage," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 143(C), pages 283-300.
    13. Liu, Zhu & Liang, Sai & Geng, Yong & Xue, Bing & Xi, Fengming & Pan, Ying & Zhang, Tianzhu & Fujita, Tsuyoshi, 2012. "Features, trajectories and driving forces for energy-related GHG emissions from Chinese mega cites: The case of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 245-254.
    14. Dietzenbacher, Erik, 1992. "The measurement of interindustry linkages : Key sectors in the Netherlands," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 419-437, October.
    15. Lindner, Soeren & Liu, Zhu & Guan, Dabo & Geng, Yong & Li, Xin, 2013. "CO2 emissions from China’s power sector at the provincial level: Consumption versus production perspectives," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 164-172.
    16. Dotzauer, Erik, 2010. "Greenhouse gas emissions from power generation and consumption in a nordic perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 701-704, February.
    17. Lin, Jianyi & Liu, Yuan & Meng, Fanxin & Cui, Shenghui & Xu, Lilai, 2013. "Using hybrid method to evaluate carbon footprint of Xiamen City, China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 220-227.
    18. Hawkes, A.D., 2010. "Estimating marginal CO2 emissions rates for national electricity systems," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5977-5987, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Mingyue Zhao & Yuqing Niu & Lei Tian & Yizhi Liu & Qiang Zhai, 2021. "Impact Measurement of COVID-19 Lockdown on China’s Electricity-Carbon Nexus," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(18), pages 1-16, September.
    2. Wang, Junfeng & He, Shutong & Qiu, Ye & Liu, Nan & Li, Yongjian & Dong, Zhanfeng, 2018. "Investigating driving forces of aggregate carbon intensity of electricity generation in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 249-257.
    3. Zhang, Haoran & Li, Ruixiong & Cai, Xingrui & Zheng, Chaoyue & Liu, Laibao & Liu, Maodian & Zhang, Qianru & Lin, Huiming & Chen, Long & Wang, Xuejun, 2022. "Do electricity flows hamper regional economic–environmental equity?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 326(C).
    4. Li, Mingquan & Dai, Hancheng & Xie, Yang & Tao, Ye & Bregnbaek, Lars & Sandholt, Kaare, 2017. "Water conservation from power generation in China: A provincial level scenario towards 2030," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 208(C), pages 580-591.
    5. Melchiorre Casisi & Stefano Costanzo & Piero Pinamonti & Mauro Reini, 2018. "Two-Level Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization of a District Heating System with Distributed Cogeneration," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(1), pages 1-23, December.
    6. Loprete, Jason & Trojanowski, Rebecca & Butcher, Thomas & Longtin, Jon & Assanis, Dimitris, 2024. "Enabling residential heating decarbonization through hydronic low-temperature thermal distribution using forced-air assistive devices," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 353(PA).
    7. Zhang, Jinbo & Liu, Lirong & Xie, Yulei & Han, Dengcheng & Zhang, Yang & Li, Zheng & Guo, Huaicheng, 2023. "Revealing the impact of an energy–water–carbon nexus–based joint tax management policy on the environ-economic system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 331(C).
    8. Zhang, Pengfei & Cai, Wenqiu & Yao, Mingtao & Wang, Zhiyou & Yang, Luzhen & Wei, Wendong, 2020. "Urban carbon emissions associated with electricity consumption in Beijing and the driving factors," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 275(C).
    9. Zhangqi Zhong & Xu Zhang & Weina Gao, 2020. "Spatiotemporal Evolution of Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Transferring via Trade: Influencing Factors and Policy Implications," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(14), pages 1-24, July.
    10. Zhang, Chao & Zhong, Lijin & Liang, Sai & Sanders, Kelly T. & Wang, Jiao & Xu, Ming, 2017. "Virtual scarce water embodied in inter-provincial electricity transmission in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 187(C), pages 438-448.
    11. Nicole A. Ryan & Jeremiah X. Johnson & Gregory A. Keoleian & Geoffrey M. Lewis, 2018. "Decision Support Algorithm for Evaluating Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Generation in the United States," Journal of Industrial Ecology, Yale University, vol. 22(6), pages 1318-1330, December.
    12. Yanfeng Li & Yongping Li & Guohe Huang & Rubing Zheng, 2022. "Inter-Provincial Electricity Trading and Its Effects on Carbon Emissions from the Power Industry," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(10), pages 1-20, May.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Junbo Wang & Liu Chen & Lu Chen & Xiaohui Zhao & Minxi Wang & Yiyi Ju & Li Xin, 2019. "City-Level Features of Energy Footprints and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Sichuan Province of China," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(10), pages 1-14, May.
    2. Wang, H. & Ang, B.W. & Su, Bin, 2017. "Assessing drivers of economy-wide energy use and emissions: IDA versus SDA," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 585-599.
    3. Ingrid Munné-Collado & Fabio Maria Aprà & Pol Olivella-Rosell & Roberto Villafáfila-Robles, 2019. "The Potential Role of Flexibility During Peak Hours on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Life Cycle Assessment of Five Targeted National Electricity Grid Mixes," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(23), pages 1-22, November.
    4. Fleschutz, Markus & Bohlayer, Markus & Braun, Marco & Henze, Gregor & Murphy, Michael D., 2021. "The effect of price-based demand response on carbon emissions in European electricity markets: The importance of adequate carbon prices," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 295(C).
    5. Wang, Junfeng & He, Shutong & Qiu, Ye & Liu, Nan & Li, Yongjian & Dong, Zhanfeng, 2018. "Investigating driving forces of aggregate carbon intensity of electricity generation in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 249-257.
    6. Changjian Wang & Fei Wang, 2015. "Structural Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions and Policy Recommendations for Energy Sustainability in Xinjiang," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 7(6), pages 1-20, June.
    7. Guo, Bin & Geng, Yong & Dong, Huijuan & Liu, Yaxuan, 2016. "Energy-related greenhouse gas emission features in China’s energy supply region: the case of Xinjiang," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 15-24.
    8. Kim, Yong-Gun & Yoo, Jonghyun & Oh, Wankeun, 2015. "Driving forces of rapid CO2 emissions growth: A case of Korea," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 144-155.
    9. Nils Seckinger & Peter Radgen, 2021. "Dynamic Prospective Average and Marginal GHG Emission Factors—Scenario-Based Method for the German Power System until 2050," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(9), pages 1-22, April.
    10. Geng, Yong & Zhao, Hongyan & Liu, Zhu & Xue, Bing & Fujita, Tsuyoshi & Xi, Fengming, 2013. "Exploring driving factors of energy-related CO2 emissions in Chinese provinces: A case of Liaoning," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 820-826.
    11. Daniels, Laura & Coker, Phil & Potter, Ben, 2016. "Embodied carbon dioxide of network assets in a decarbonised electricity grid," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 180(C), pages 142-154.
    12. Wang, Miao & Feng, Chao, 2017. "Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions in China’s mining industry: Evidence and policy implications," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 77-87.
    13. Zhang, Pingdan & Yuan, Haoming & Bai, Fuli & Tian, Xin & Shi, Feng, 2018. "How do carbon dioxide emissions respond to industrial structural transitions? Empirical results from the northeastern provinces of China," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 145-154.
    14. Xuankai Deng & Yanhua Yu & Yanfang Liu, 2015. "Effect of Construction Land Expansion on Energy-Related Carbon Emissions: Empirical Analysis of China and Its Provinces from 2001 to 2011," Energies, MDPI, vol. 8(6), pages 1-22, June.
    15. Roux, Charlotte & Schalbart, Patrick & Assoumou, Edi & Peuportier, Bruno, 2016. "Integrating climate change and energy mix scenarios in LCA of buildings and districts," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 619-629.
    16. Yuhuan Zhao & Song Wang & Jiaqin Yang & Zhonghua Zhang & Ya Liu, 2016. "Input-output analysis of carbon emissions embodied in China-Japan trade," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(16), pages 1515-1529, April.
    17. Onat, Nuri Cihat & Kucukvar, Murat & Tatari, Omer, 2015. "Conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid or electric vehicles? State-based comparative carbon and energy footprint analysis in the United States," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 36-49.
    18. Wang, Zhen & Wei, Liyuan & Niu, Beibei & Liu, Yong & Bin, Guoshu, 2017. "Controlling embedded carbon emissions of sectors along the supply chains: A perspective of the power-of-pull approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 206(C), pages 1544-1551.
    19. Gui, Shusen & Mu, Hailin & Li, Nan, 2014. "Analysis of impact factors on China's CO2 emissions from the view of supply chain paths," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 405-416.
    20. Filippo Beltrami & Fulvio Fontini & Monica Giulietti & Luigi Grossi, 2022. "The Zonal and Seasonal CO2 Marginal Emissions Factors for the Italian Power Market," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 83(2), pages 381-411, October.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:184:y:2016:i:c:p:751-758. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.