IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/rensus/v19y2013icp164-172.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

CO2 emissions from China’s power sector at the provincial level: Consumption versus production perspectives

Author

Listed:
  • Lindner, Soeren
  • Liu, Zhu
  • Guan, Dabo
  • Geng, Yong
  • Li, Xin

Abstract

The Chinese electricity sector plays an important role in domestic CO2 mitigation efforts due to its large contribution to overall emissions. However, primary energy resources used for electricity generation are not evenly distributed across the country. Such a supply and demand mismatch in reality results in large parts of electricity to be transferred from economically less developed provinces in the west to economic growth centres in the east. A literature review shows that the emissions embodied in electricity transfer within China have not been explicitly studied, although in fact they cause a shift of environmental pollution away from economically well-off provinces to resource-rich, and less developed provinces. Therefore, it is critical for policy makers to address this issue. Under such a circumstance, a bottom-up model is developed to calculate direct CO2 emissions embodied in electricity export and import between Chinese provinces. It helps quantifying emissions from the power sector associated with both production and consumption perspectives and sheds lights on the environmental impact of regional supply and demand mismatch in China. Results show that the difference between consumption and production based CO2 emissions from electricity sector in some provinces were higher than the total CO2 emissions from electricity sector in Netherlands (in the case of Beijing), or as high as the total CO2 emission from France’s electricity sector (in the case of Guangdong). Based upon Chinese realities, policy implications and suggestions are made, such as how to set up appropriate emission reduction targets for electricity sector at provincial level, and the inclusion of consumption emissions in designing China’s cap-and-trade mechanism. The methodology and findings may be useful for investigation of embodied emissions throughout various regions of the world.

Suggested Citation

  • Lindner, Soeren & Liu, Zhu & Guan, Dabo & Geng, Yong & Li, Xin, 2013. "CO2 emissions from China’s power sector at the provincial level: Consumption versus production perspectives," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 164-172.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:19:y:2013:i:c:p:164-172
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.10.050
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032112006168
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Tu, Wubin & Zhang, LingXian & Zhou, Zhongren & Liu, Xue & Fu, Zetian, 2011. "The development of renewable energy in resource-rich region: A case in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 856-860, January.
    2. Hubacek, Klaus & Sun, Laixiang, 2001. "A scenario analysis of China's land use and land cover change: incorporating biophysical information into input-output modeling," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 367-397, December.
    3. David Wheeler & Kevin Ummel, 2008. "Calculating CARMA: Global Estimation of CO2 Emissions from the Power Sector," Working Papers 145, Center for Global Development.
    4. Weber, Christopher L. & Peters, Glen P. & Guan, Dabo & Hubacek, Klaus, 2008. "The contribution of Chinese exports to climate change," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3572-3577, September.
    5. Kirat, Djamel & Ahamada, Ibrahim, 2011. "The impact of the European Union emission trading scheme on the electricity-generation sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 995-1003, September.
    6. Yuan, Jiahai & Hu, Zhaoguang, 2011. "Low carbon electricity development in China--An IRSP perspective based on Super Smart Grid," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 2707-2713, August.
    7. Geng, Yong & Liu, Ye & Liu, Dan & Zhao, Hengxin & Xue, Bing, 2011. "Regional societal and ecosystem metabolism analysis in China: A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal metabolism(MSIASM) approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 4799-4808.
    8. Liu, Zhu & Geng, Yong & Lindner, Soeren & Zhao, Hongyan & Fujita, Tsuyoshi & Guan, Dabo, 2012. "Embodied energy use in China's industrial sectors," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 751-758.
    9. Liu, Zhu & Geng, Yong & Lindner, Soeren & Guan, Dabo, 2012. "Uncovering China’s greenhouse gas emission from regional and sectoral perspectives," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 1059-1068.
    10. Wang, Qiang & Chen, Yong, 2010. "Status and outlook of China's free-carbon electricity," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 1014-1025, April.
    11. Djamel Kirat & Ibrahim Ahamada, 2009. "The impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme on electricity generation sectors," Working Papers hal-00378317, HAL.
    12. Zhang, Yan & Zhang, Jinyun & Yang, Zhifeng & Li, Shengsheng, 2011. "Regional differences in the factors that influence China’s energy-related carbon emissions, and potential mitigation strategies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 7712-7718.
    13. Zhu, Fahua & Zheng, Youfei & Guo, Xulin & Wang, Sheng, 2005. "Environmental impacts and benefits of regional power grid interconnections for China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(14), pages 1797-1805, September.
    14. Xingang, Zhao & Xiaomeng, Liu & Pingkuo, Liu & Tiantian, Feng, 2011. "The mechanism and policy on the electricity price of renewable energy in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 4302-4309.
    15. Yuan, Jiahai & Hou, Yong & Xu, Ming, 2012. "China's 2020 carbon intensity target: Consistency, implementations, and policy implications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 4970-4981.
    16. Meng, Lei & Guo, Ju'e & Chai, Jian & Zhang, Zengkai, 2011. "China's regional CO2 emissions: Characteristics, inter-regional transfer and emission reduction policies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 6136-6144, October.
    17. Liu, Wen & Lund, Henrik & Mathiesen, Brian Vad & Zhang, Xiliang, 2011. "Potential of renewable energy systems in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 518-525, February.
    18. Ma, Hengyun & Oxley, Les & Gibson, John & Li, Wen, 2010. "A survey of China's renewable energy economy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 438-445, January.
    19. Sinton, Jonathan E. & Fridley, David G., 2000. "What goes up: recent trends in China's energy consumption," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 671-687, August.
    20. Liang, Qiao-Mei & Fan, Ying & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2007. "Multi-regional input-output model for regional energy requirements and CO2 emissions in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1685-1700, March.
    21. Flachsland, Christian & Marschinski, Robert & Edenhofer, Ottmar, 2009. "Global trading versus linking: Architectures for international emissions trading," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1637-1647, May.
    22. Guo, Ju’e & Zhang, Zengkai & Meng, Lei, 2012. "China’s provincial CO2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 486-497.
    23. Djamel Kirat & Ibrahim Ahamada, 2009. "The impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme on electricity generation sectors," Post-Print halshs-00384496, HAL.
    24. Ngan, H.W., 2010. "Electricity regulation and electricity market reforms in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2142-2148, May.
    25. Wang, Hao & Nakata, Toshihiko, 2009. "Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 338-351, January.
    26. Li, X. & Hubacek, K. & Siu, Y.L., 2012. "Wind power in China – Dream or reality?," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 51-60.
    27. Yi, Wen-Jing & Zou, Le-Le & Guo, Jie & Wang, Kai & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2011. "How can China reach its CO2 intensity reduction targets by 2020? A regional allocation based on equity and development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2407-2415, May.
    28. Feng, Kuishuang & Hubacek, Klaus & Guan, Dabo, 2009. "Lifestyles, technology and CO2 emissions in China: A regional comparative analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 145-154, November.
    29. Chang, J. & Leung, Dennis Y. C. & Wu, C. Z. & Yuan, Z. H., 2003. "A review on the energy production, consumption, and prospect of renewable energy in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 453-468, October.
    30. Su, Bin & Ang, B.W., 2010. "Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade: The effects of spatial aggregation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 10-18, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Daví-Arderius, Daniel & Sanin, María-Eugenia & Trujillo-Baute, Elisa, 2017. "CO2 content of electricity losses," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 439-445.
    2. Wang, Junfeng & He, Shutong & Qiu, Ye & Liu, Nan & Li, Yongjian & Dong, Zhanfeng, 2018. "Investigating driving forces of aggregate carbon intensity of electricity generation in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 249-257.
    3. Zhang, XiaoHong & Hu, He & Zhang, Rong & Deng, ShiHuai, 2014. "Interactions between China׳s economy, energy and the air emissions and their policy implications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 624-638.
    4. Yang, Ranran & Long, Ruyin & Yue, Ting & Shi, Haihong, 2014. "Calculation of embodied energy in Sino-USA trade: 1997–2011," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 110-119.
    5. Ye, Bin & Jiang, JingJing & Li, Changsheng & Miao, Lixin & Tang, Jie, 2017. "Quantification and driving force analysis of provincial-level carbon emissions in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 198(C), pages 223-238.
    6. Chen, Zhan-Ming & Liu, Yu & Qin, Ping & Zhang, Bo & Lester, Leo & Chen, Guanghua & Guo, Yumei & Zheng, Xinye, 2015. "Environmental externality of coal use in China: Welfare effect and tax regulation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 16-31.
    7. Chen, G. & Chen, B. & Zhou, H. & Dai, P., 2013. "Life cycle carbon emission flow analysis for electricity supply system: A case study of China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1276-1284.
    8. Tang, Miaohan & Hong, Jingke & Liu, Guiwen & Shen, Geoffrey Qiping, 2019. "Exploring energy flows embodied in China's economy from the regional and sectoral perspectives via combination of multi-regional input–output analysis and a complex network approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 170(C), pages 1191-1201.
    9. Guo, Bin & Geng, Yong & Dong, Huijuan & Liu, Yaxuan, 2016. "Energy-related greenhouse gas emission features in China’s energy supply region: the case of Xinjiang," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 15-24.
    10. Hao, Han & Geng, Yong & Hang, Wen, 2016. "GHG emissions from primary aluminum production in China: Regional disparity and policy implications," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 264-272.
    11. Geng, Yong & Zhao, Hongyan & Liu, Zhu & Xue, Bing & Fujita, Tsuyoshi & Xi, Fengming, 2013. "Exploring driving factors of energy-related CO2 emissions in Chinese provinces: A case of Liaoning," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 820-826.
    12. Jacques, David A. & Guan, Dabo & Geng, Yong & Xue, Bing & Wang, Xiaoguang, 2013. "Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 454-461.
    13. Joshua Sunday Riti & Deyong Song & Yang Shu & Miriam Kamah & Agya Adi Atabani, 2018. "Does renewable energy ensure environmental quality in favour of economic growth? Empirical evidence from China’s renewable development," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 52(5), pages 2007-2030, September.
    14. Weitzel, Matthias & Ma, Tao, 2014. "Emissions embodied in Chinese exports taking into account the special export structure of China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 45-52.
    15. Tian, Yihui & Zhu, Qinghua & Geng, Yong, 2013. "An analysis of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in the Chinese iron and steel industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 352-361.
    16. Ji, Ling & Liang, Sai & Qu, Shen & Zhang, Yanxia & Xu, Ming & Jia, Xiaoping & Jia, Yingtao & Niu, Dongxiao & Yuan, Jiahai & Hou, Yong & Wang, Haikun & Chiu, Anthony S.F. & Hu, Xiaojun, 2016. "Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 751-758.
    17. Zhang, Bo & Chen, Z.M. & Xia, X.H. & Xu, X.Y. & Chen, Y.B., 2013. "The impact of domestic trade on China's regional energy uses: A multi-regional input–output modeling," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1169-1181.
    18. Qin, Quande & Liu, Yuan & Huang, Jia-Ping, 2020. "A cooperative game analysis for the allocation of carbon emissions reduction responsibility in China's power industry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).
    19. Xu, Bin & Lin, Boqiang, 2015. "Carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China's transport sector: A dynamic VAR (vector autoregression) approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 486-495.
    20. Zhai, Mengyu & Huang, Guohe & Liu, Lirong & Zheng, Boyue & Guan, Yuru, 2020. "Inter-regional carbon flows embodied in electricity transmission: network simulation for energy-carbon nexus," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 118(C).
    21. Zhang, Bo & Chen, G.Q., 2014. "Methane emissions in China 2007," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 886-902.
    22. Liu, Zhe & Geng, Yong & Adams, Michelle & Dong, Liang & Sun, Lina & Zhao, Jingjing & Dong, Huijuan & Wu, Jiao & Tian, Xu, 2016. "Uncovering driving forces on greenhouse gas emissions in China’ aluminum industry from the perspective of life cycle analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 253-263.
    23. Li, Xin & Chalvatzis, Konstantinos J. & Pappas, Dimitrios, 2018. "Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation in China’s provinces in 2020," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 223(C), pages 93-102.
    24. Zhang, Yanxia & Wang, Haikun & Liang, Sai & Xu, Ming & Liu, Weidong & Li, Shalang & Zhang, Rongrong & Nielsen, Chris P. & Bi, Jun, 2014. "Temporal and spatial variations in consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 60-68.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zhang, Zengkai & Guo, Ju'e & Hewings, Geoffrey J.D., 2014. "The effects of direct trade within China on regional and national CO2 emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 161-175.
    2. Zhang, Youguo & Tang, Zhipeng, 2015. "Driving factors of carbon embodied in China's provincial exports," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 445-454.
    3. Hawkins, Jacob & Ma, Chunbo & Schilizzi, Steven & Zhang, Fan, 2015. "Promises and pitfalls in environmentally extended input–output analysis for China: A survey of the literature," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 81-88.
    4. Hong, Jingke & Shen, Geoffrey Qiping & Guo, Shan & Xue, Fan & Zheng, Wei, 2016. "Energy use embodied in China׳s construction industry: A multi-regional input–output analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 1303-1312.
    5. Zhang, Bo & Chen, Z.M. & Xia, X.H. & Xu, X.Y. & Chen, Y.B., 2013. "The impact of domestic trade on China's regional energy uses: A multi-regional input–output modeling," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1169-1181.
    6. Li, Zheng & Pan, Lingying & Fu, Feng & Liu, Pei & Ma, Linwei & Amorelli, Angelo, 2014. "China's regional disparities in energy consumption: An input–output analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 426-438.
    7. Zhang, Bo & Chen, G.Q., 2014. "Methane emissions in China 2007," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 886-902.
    8. Ye, Bin & Jiang, JingJing & Li, Changsheng & Miao, Lixin & Tang, Jie, 2017. "Quantification and driving force analysis of provincial-level carbon emissions in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 198(C), pages 223-238.
    9. Zhang, Youguo, 2015. "Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 142-153.
    10. Zhen, Wei & Qin, Quande & Zhong, Zhangqi & Li, Li & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2018. "Uncovering household indirect energy-saving responsibility from a sectoral perspective: An empirical analysis of Guangdong, China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 451-461.
    11. Chen, G. & Chen, B. & Zhou, H. & Dai, P., 2013. "Life cycle carbon emission flow analysis for electricity supply system: A case study of China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1276-1284.
    12. Guo, Ju’e & Zhang, Zengkai & Meng, Lei, 2012. "China’s provincial CO2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 486-497.
    13. Liu, Hongguang & Liu, Weidong & Fan, Xiaomei & Zou, Wei, 2015. "Carbon emissions embodied in demand–supply chains in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 294-305.
    14. Chen, Zhan-Ming & Liu, Yu & Qin, Ping & Zhang, Bo & Lester, Leo & Chen, Guanghua & Guo, Yumei & Zheng, Xinye, 2015. "Environmental externality of coal use in China: Welfare effect and tax regulation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 16-31.
    15. Leying Wu & Zheng Wang, 2017. "Examining drivers of the emissions embodied in trade," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 12(4), pages 1-14, April.
    16. Yang, Jin & Chen, Bin, 2014. "Carbon footprint estimation of Chinese economic sectors based on a three-tier model," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 499-507.
    17. Liu, Qiaoling & Wang, Qi, 2015. "Reexamine SO2 emissions embodied in China's exports using multiregional input–output analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 39-50.
    18. Wang, Yafei & Liang, Sai, 2013. "Carbon dioxide mitigation target of China in 2020 and key economic sectors," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 90-96.
    19. Qi, Tianyu & Winchester, Niven & Karplus, Valerie J. & Zhang, Xiliang, 2014. "Will economic restructuring in China reduce trade-embodied CO2 emissions?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 204-212.
    20. Li, Mingquan & Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia & Zhang, Junfeng (Jim), 2019. "Policies to promote energy efficiency and air emissions reductions in China's electric power generation sector during the 11th and 12th five-year plan periods: Achievements, remaining challenges, and ," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 429-444.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:19:y:2013:i:c:p:164-172. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600126/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.