IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/agiwat/v96y2009i3p511-516.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Optimizing supplemental irrigation: Tradeoffs between profitability and sustainability

Author

Listed:
  • Oweis, Theib
  • Hachum, Ahmed

Abstract

Water production functions are used to model yield response to various levels of supplemental irrigation (SI), to assess water productivity coefficients, and to identify optimum irrigation under various input-output price scenarios. The SI production function is taken as the difference between the total water production function (irrigation + rain) and that of rainwater. Theoretical analysis of the unconstrained objective function shows that the seasonal depth of SI to maximize profit occurs when the marginal product of water equals the ratio of unit water cost to unit product sale price. Applying this analysis to wheat in northern Syria, the production functions of SI under different rainfall conditions are developed. Coupled with current and projected water costs and wheat sale prices, the functions are used to develop an easy-to-use chart for determining seasonal irrigation rates to maximize profit under a range of seasonal rainfall amounts. Results show that, for a given seasonal rainfall, there is a critical value for the ratio of irrigation cost to production price beyond which SI becomes less profitable than rainfed production. Higher product prices and lower irrigation costs encourage the use of more water. Policies supporting high wheat prices and low irrigation costs encourage maximizing yields but with low water productivity. The resulting farmer practice threatens the sustainability of water resources. Balancing profitability versus sustainability is a challenge for policy makers. Our analysis can help national and local water authorities and policy makers determine appropriate policies for water valuation and allocation; and assist extension services and farmers in planning irrigation infrastructure and farm water management.

Suggested Citation

  • Oweis, Theib & Hachum, Ahmed, 2009. "Optimizing supplemental irrigation: Tradeoffs between profitability and sustainability," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(3), pages 511-516, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:96:y:2009:i:3:p:511-516
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378-3774(08)00227-8
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ilbeyi, Adem & Ustun, Haluk & Oweis, Theib & Pala, Mustafa & Benli, Bogachan, 2006. "Wheat water productivity and yield in a cool highland environment: Effect of early sowing with supplemental irrigation," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 399-410, April.
    2. Rockstrom, J. & Hatibu, N. & Oweis, T. Y. & Wani, S. & Barron, J. & Bruggeman, A. & Farahani, J. & Karlberg, L. & Qiang, Z., 2007. "Managing water in rainfed agriculture," IWMI Books, Reports H040201, International Water Management Institute.
    3. Zhang, Heping & Oweis, Theib, 1999. "Water-yield relations and optimal irrigation scheduling of wheat in the Mediterranean region," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 195-211, January.
    4. Molden, David & Oweis, T. Y. & Pasquale, S. & Kijne, Jacob W. & Hanjra, M. A. & Bindraban, P. S. & Bouman, Bas A. M. & Cook, S. & Erenstein, O. & Farahani, H. & Hachum, A. & Hoogeveen, J. & Mahoo, Hen, 2007. "Pathways for increasing agricultural water productivity," Book Chapters,, International Water Management Institute.
    5. Oweis, T. Y. & Hachum, A. Y., 2003. "Improving water productivity in the dry areas of West Asia and North Africa," IWMI Books, Reports H032642, International Water Management Institute.
    6. English, Marshall & Raja, Syed Navaid, 1996. "Perspectives on deficit irrigation," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 1-14, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Wakchaure, G.C. & Minhas, P.S. & Ratnakumar, P. & Choudhary, R.L., 2016. "Optimising supplemental irrigation for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the impact of plant bio-regulators in a semi-arid region of Deccan Plateau in India," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 9-17.
    2. Youzhen Xiang & Haiyang Zou & Fucang Zhang & Shengcai Qiang & You Wu & Shicheng Yan & Haidong Wang & Lifeng Wu & Junliang Fan & Xiukang Wang, 2018. "Effect of Irrigation Level and Irrigation Frequency on the Growth of Mini Chinese Cabbage and Residual Soil Nitrate Nitrogen," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(1), pages 1-20, December.
    3. Oweis, T.Y. & Farahani, H.J. & Hachum, A.Y., 2011. "Evapotranspiration and water use of full and deficit irrigated cotton in the Mediterranean environment in northern Syria," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(8), pages 1239-1248, May.
    4. Dimitri Defrance & Benjamin Sultan & Mathieu Castets & Adjoua Moise Famien & Christian Baron, 2020. "Impact of Climate Change in West Africa on Cereal Production Per Capita in 2050," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(18), pages 1-19, September.
    5. Masih, I. & Maskey, S. & Uhlenbrook, S. & Smakhtin, V., 2011. "Impact of upstream changes in rain-fed agriculture on downstream flow in a semi-arid basin," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 36-45.
    6. Ziolkowska, Jad R., 2018. "Profitability of Irrigation and Value of Water in the Southern High Plains," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274355, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Molden, David & Oweis, Theib & Steduto, Pasquale & Bindraban, Prem & Hanjra, Munir A. & Kijne, Jacob, 2010. "Improving agricultural water productivity: Between optimism and caution," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(4), pages 528-535, April.
    2. Oweis, Theib & Hachum, Ahmed, 2006. "Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 80(1-3), pages 57-73, February.
    3. Geerts, Sam & Raes, Dirk, 2009. "Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(9), pages 1275-1284, September.
    4. Raes, Dirk & Geerts, Sam & Kipkorir, Emmanuel & Wellens, Joost & Sahli, Ali, 2006. "Simulation of yield decline as a result of water stress with a robust soil water balance model," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 81(3), pages 335-357, March.
    5. Araya, A. & Gowda, P.H. & Golden, B. & Foster, A.J. & Aguilar, J. & Currie, R. & Ciampitti, I.A. & Prasad, P.V.V., 2019. "Economic value and water productivity of major irrigated crops in the Ogallala aquifer region," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 214(C), pages 55-63.
    6. Sun, Hong-Yong & Liu, Chang-Ming & Zhang, Xi-Ying & Shen, Yan-Jun & Zhang, Yong-Qiang, 2006. "Effects of irrigation on water balance, yield and WUE of winter wheat in the North China Plain," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 211-218, September.
    7. Metin Sezen, S. & Yazar, Attila, 2006. "Wheat yield response to line-source sprinkler irrigation in the arid Southeast Anatolia region of Turkey," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 81(1-2), pages 59-76, March.
    8. de Fraiture, Charlotte & Wichelns, Dennis, 2010. "Satisfying future water demands for agriculture," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(4), pages 502-511, April.
    9. Li, Jiamin & Inanaga, Shinobu & Li, Zhaohu & Eneji, A. Egrinya, 2005. "Optimizing irrigation scheduling for winter wheat in the North China Plain," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 8-23, July.
    10. Bouman, B. A.M., 2007. "A conceptual framework for the improvement of crop water productivity at different spatial scales," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 93(1-3), pages 43-60, March.
    11. Zhang, H., 2003. "Improving water productivity through deficit irrigation: examples from Syria, the North China Plain and Oregon, USA," IWMI Books, Reports H032649, International Water Management Institute.
    12. Geerts, S. & Raes, D. & Garcia, M. & Taboada, C. & Miranda, R. & Cusicanqui, J. & Mhizha, T. & Vacher, J., 2009. "Modeling the potential for closing quinoa yield gaps under varying water availability in the Bolivian Altiplano," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(11), pages 1652-1658, November.
    13. Mahmood, A. & Oweis, T. & Ashraf, M. & Majid, A. & Aftab, M. & Aadal, N.K. & Ahmad, I., 2015. "Performance of improved practices in farmers’ fields under rainfed and supplemental irrigation systems in a semi-arid area of Pakistan," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 1-10.
    14. Yau, Sui-Kwong & Nimah, Musa & Farran, Mohamad, 2011. "Early sowing and irrigation to increase barley yields and water use efficiency in Mediterranean conditions," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(12), pages 1776-1781, October.
    15. Oweis, Theib & Hachum, Ahmed & Pala, Mustafa, 2004. "Water use efficiency of winter-sown chickpea under supplemental irrigation in a mediterranean environment," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 163-179, April.
    16. Pereira, Luis Santos & Oweis, Theib & Zairi, Abdelaziz, 2002. "Irrigation management under water scarcity," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 175-206, December.
    17. Muthuwatta, L.P. & Rientjes, T.H.M. & Bos, M.G., 2013. "Strategies to increase wheat production in the water scarce Karkheh River Basin, Iran," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 1-10.
    18. Sezen, S.M. & Yazar, A. & Kapur, B. & Tekin, S., 2011. "Comparison of drip and sprinkler irrigation strategies on sunflower seed and oil yield and quality under Mediterranean climatic conditions," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(7), pages 1153-1161, May.
    19. Lovelli, S. & Perniola, M. & Ferrara, A. & Di Tommaso, T., 2007. "Yield response factor to water (Ky) and water use efficiency of Carthamus tinctorius L. and Solanum melongena L," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 92(1-2), pages 73-80, August.
    20. Liu, Jianchao & Feng, Hao & He, Jianqiang & Chen, Haixin & Ding, Dianyuan, 2018. "The effects of nitrogen and water stresses on the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor of winter wheat," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 217-223.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:96:y:2009:i:3:p:511-516. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.