IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/agiwat/v155y2015icp1-10.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Performance of improved practices in farmers’ fields under rainfed and supplemental irrigation systems in a semi-arid area of Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Mahmood, A.
  • Oweis, T.
  • Ashraf, M.
  • Majid, A.
  • Aftab, M.
  • Aadal, N.K.
  • Ahmad, I.

Abstract

In Pakistan, like many of the developing countries, crop yields under dryland agriculture are very low. This field research aimed at investigating improving land and water productivities and farmers’ incomes through improved water management, crop intensification and diversification under rainfed and supplemental irrigation (SI) conditions. With improved packages (e.g. high yielding varieties, appropriate seed rates, time of sowing, and use of fertilizers) an average of 31% higher yields of rainfed wheat (Triticum aestivum) were obtained by farmers compared to their traditional practices. The net income under the improved package was about Rs. 70,000/ha (1 US$=Rs. 72), almost double that under farmers’ current practices. The highest wheat yield of 5102kg/ha obtained in small plots was 28% higher than for farmers’ current practices; followed by the raised bed yield of 4776kg/ha. With only 20% extra cost for water used as SI for small plot sowing with improved practices, there was 47% higher wheat yield and over 60% higher net income obtained compared to farmers’ practices. Similarly, with about 10% additional cost for SI, groundnut (Arachis hypogea) yield and net income increased up to four times compared to farmers’ practices. It may be concluded that, in this environment, much of the yield gap between farmers and research may be closed by adopting simple and low cost integrated packages.

Suggested Citation

  • Mahmood, A. & Oweis, T. & Ashraf, M. & Majid, A. & Aftab, M. & Aadal, N.K. & Ahmad, I., 2015. "Performance of improved practices in farmers’ fields under rainfed and supplemental irrigation systems in a semi-arid area of Pakistan," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 1-10.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:155:y:2015:i:c:p:1-10
    DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2015.03.006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378377415000815
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Passioura, John, 2006. "Increasing crop productivity when water is scarce--from breeding to field management," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 80(1-3), pages 176-196, February.
    2. Faraji, Abolfazl & Latifi, Nasser & Soltani, Afshin & Rad, Amir Hossain Shirani, 2009. "Seed yield and water use efficiency of canola (Brassica napus L.) as affected by high temperature stress and supplemental irrigation," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 132-140, January.
    3. Ilbeyi, Adem & Ustun, Haluk & Oweis, Theib & Pala, Mustafa & Benli, Bogachan, 2006. "Wheat water productivity and yield in a cool highland environment: Effect of early sowing with supplemental irrigation," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 399-410, April.
    4. Rockstrom, J. & Hatibu, N. & Oweis, T. Y. & Wani, S. & Barron, J. & Bruggeman, A. & Farahani, J. & Karlberg, L. & Qiang, Z., 2007. "Managing water in rainfed agriculture," IWMI Books, Reports H040201, International Water Management Institute.
    5. Kijne, J. W. & Barker, R. & Molden. D., 2003. "Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvement," IWMI Books, Reports H032631, International Water Management Institute.
    6. Ashraf, M. & Kahlown, M.A. & Ashfaq, A., 2007. "Impact of small dams on agriculture and groundwater development: A case study from Pakistan," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 92(1-2), pages 90-98, August.
    7. Rijsberman, Frank R., 2006. "Water scarcity: Fact or fiction?," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 80(1-3), pages 5-22, February.
    8. Sharma, Bharat R. & Rao, K.V. & Vittal, K.P.R. & Ramakrishna, Y.S. & Amarasinghe, U., 2010. "Estimating the potential of rainfed agriculture in India: Prospects for water productivity improvements," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 23-30, January.
    9. Oweis, Theib & Hachum, Ahmed, 2006. "Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 80(1-3), pages 57-73, February.
    10. Kijne, Jacob W. & Barker, Randolph & Molden, David J. (ed.), 2003. "Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvement," IWMI Books, International Water Management Institute, number 138054, December.
    11. Wang, Huixiao & Zhang, Lu & Dawes, W. R. & Liu, Changming, 2001. "Improving water use efficiency of irrigated crops in the North China Plain -- measurements and modelling," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 151-167, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ali, M.H. & Talukder, M.S.U., 2008. "Increasing water productivity in crop production--A synthesis," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1201-1213, November.
    2. Immerzeel, W.W. & Gaur, A. & Zwart, S.J., 2008. "Integrating remote sensing and a process-based hydrological model to evaluate water use and productivity in a south Indian catchment," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 11-24, January.
    3. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M., 2004. "Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 115-133, September.
    4. Qadir, M. & Sharma, B.R. & Bruggeman, A. & Choukr-Allah, R. & Karajeh, F., 2007. "Non-conventional water resources and opportunities for water augmentation to achieve food security in water scarce countries," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 2-22, January.
    5. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M., 2007. "SEBAL for detecting spatial variation of water productivity and scope for improvement in eight irrigated wheat systems," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 287-296, May.
    6. Dugan, Patrick & Dey, Madan M. & Sugunan, V.V., 2006. "Fisheries and water productivity in tropical river basins: Enhancing food security and livelihoods by managing water for fish," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 80(1-3), pages 262-275, February.
    7. Kumar, M. Dinesh & Singh, O.P. & Samad, Madar & Purohit, Chaitali & Didyala, Malkit Singh, 2009. "Water productivity of irrigated agriculture in India: potential areas for improvement," Book Chapters,, International Water Management Institute.
    8. Scheierling, Susanne M. & Treguer, David O. & Booker, James F. & Decker, Elisabeth, 2014. "How to assess agricultural water productivity ? looking for water in the agricultural productivity and efficiency literature," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6982, The World Bank.
    9. Ahmad, Mirza Junaid & Iqbal, Muhammad Anjum & Choi, Kyung Sook, 2020. "Climate-driven constraints in sustaining future wheat yield and water productivity," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 231(C).
    10. Kumar, M. Dinesh & Trivedi, K. & Singh, O. P., 2009. "Analyzing the impact of quality and reliability of irrigation water on crop water productivity using an irrigation quality index," IWMI Books, Reports H042636, International Water Management Institute.
    11. Battude, Marjorie & Al Bitar, Ahmad & Brut, Aurore & Tallec, Tiphaine & Huc, Mireille & Cros, Jérôme & Weber, Jean-Jacques & Lhuissier, Ludovic & Simonneaux, Vincent & Demarez, Valérie, 2017. "Modeling water needs and total irrigation depths of maize crop in the south west of France using high spatial and temporal resolution satellite imagery," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 189(C), pages 123-136.
    12. Kumar, M. Dinesh & van Dam, J. C., 2009. "Improving water productivity in agriculture in India: beyond \u2018more crop per drop\u2019," IWMI Books, Reports H042639, International Water Management Institute.
    13. Zwart, Sander J. & Bastiaanssen, Wim G.M. & de Fraiture, Charlotte & Molden, David J., 2010. "WATPRO: A remote sensing based model for mapping water productivity of wheat," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 97(10), pages 1628-1636, October.
    14. Kumar, M. Dinesh & Sharma, Bharat R. & Singh, O.P., 2009. "Water saving and yield enhancing micro-irrigation technologies: how far can they contribute to water productivity in Indian agriculture?," Book Chapters,, International Water Management Institute.
    15. Bossio, Deborah & Noble, Andrew D. & Aloysius, Noel & Pretty, J. & Penning de Vries, F., 2008. "Ecosystem benefits of \u2018bright\u2019 spots," IWMI Books, Reports H041603, International Water Management Institute.
    16. Liu, Junguo & Williams, Jimmy R. & Zehnder, Alexander J.B. & Yang, Hong, 2007. "GEPIC - modelling wheat yield and crop water productivity with high resolution on a global scale," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 478-493, May.
    17. Haileslassie, Amare & Peden, Don & Gebreselassie, Solomon & Amede, Tilahun & Descheemaeker, Katrien, 2009. "Livestock water productivity in mixed crop-livestock farming systems of the Blue Nile basin: Assessing variability and prospects for improvement," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 102(1-3), pages 33-40, October.
    18. Luxon Nhamo & James Magidi & Adolph Nyamugama & Alistair D. Clulow & Mbulisi Sibanda & Vimbayi G. P. Chimonyo & Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, 2020. "Prospects of Improving Agricultural and Water Productivity through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles," Agriculture, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(7), pages 1-18, July.
    19. Zareena Begum Irfan & Bina Gupta, 2015. "To Consume or to Conserve: Examining Water Conservation Model for Wheat Cultivation in India," Working Papers 2015-101, Madras School of Economics,Chennai,India.
    20. Sharma, Bharat & Molden, D. & Cook, Simon, 2015. "Water use efficiency in agriculture: measurement, current situation and trends," Book Chapters,, International Water Management Institute.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:155:y:2015:i:c:p:1-10. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.