Austria: Persistent low fertility since the mid-1980s
This chapter offers an in-depth analysis of fertility in Austria, a country which has experienced a low and relatively stable fertility level and a gradual postponement of childbearing since the mid-1980s. We begin by summarising Austrian population trends in the post-World War II period and highlighting recent relatively high migration levels. We outline the long history of sub-replacement fertility and high childlessness in Austria and look in detail at recent parity-specific developments, trends in family size, delayed childbearing and persistent fertility differences by education level, country of origin and religious affiliation. The chapter then summarises main trends in family-related behaviour, including the changing patterns of leaving parental home, the rise in cohabitation, the decline in marriage and the rise of divorce and the diversity in non-marital childbearing, which has a long tradition in many parts of the country. We discuss the development of family policies in Austria and their relationship to fertility during the past decades. Social policies in Austria provide only a limited support for a reconciliation of childrearing and employment among mothers with children below the age of three. A combination of one of the highest family spending rates among the OECD countries and the low fertility rates indicate that structural constraints (such as the availability of childcare) constitute part of the explanation of low fertility.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Isabella Buber, 2002. "The influence of the distribution of household and childrearing tasks between men and women on childbearing intentions in Austria," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-004, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Jan M. Hoem & Alexia Prskawetz & Gerda R. Neyer, 2001. "Autonomy or conservative adjustment? The effect of public policies and educational attainment on third births in Austria," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2001-016, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- O'Donoghue, Cathal & Sutherland, Holly, 1999. "Accounting for the Family in European Income Tax Systems," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(5), pages 565-598, September.
- Isabella Buber-Ennser & Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, 2000. "Fertility in second unions in Austria," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 3(2), July.
- Hans-Peter Kohler & Francesco C. Billari & José Antonio Ortega, 2002. "The Emergence of Lowest-Low Fertility in Europe During the 1990s," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 28(4), pages 641-680.
- Rafael Lalive & Josef Zweimï¿½ller, "undated". "Does Parental Leave Affect Fertility and Return-to-Work? Evidence from a ï¿½True Natural Experimentï¿½," IEW - Working Papers 242, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Francesco C. Billari & Dimiter Philipov & Pau Baizán Munoz, 2001. "Leaving home in Europe: the experience of cohorts born around 1960," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2001-014, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Maria Winkler-Dworak & Henriette Engelhardt, 2004. "On the tempo and quantum of first marriages in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 10(9), pages 231-264, May.
- Andres Vikat & Elizabeth Thomson & Alexia Prskawetz, 2003. "Childrearing responsibility and stepfamily fertility in Finland and Austria," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2003-001, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz & Andres Vikat & Dimiter Philipov & Henriette Engelhardt, 2003. "Pathways to stepfamily formation in Europe," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 8(5), pages 107-150, March.