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Output Volatility and Openness to Trade: a Reassessment

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  • Eduardo A. Cavallo

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Abstract

Many economists believe that, while openness to trade increases average GDP growth rates, it also raises output volatility by exposing countries to terms-oftrade shocks. This view does not take into account that commercial trade might also reduce financially related volatility. Once this is taken into account, the relationship between exposure to trade and output volatility is still an open question. This paper presents new empirical evidence that suggests that the net effect of trade openness on output volatility is stabilizing. The results confirm that exposure to trade raises output volatility through the terms-of-trade channel as previously documented in the literature, but also show that this is counteracted by a quantitatively larger stabilizing effect. Additional evidence is presented showing that the latter effect comes (at least in part) through the financial channel. The methodology employed seeks to correct for the likely endogeneity of trade in this setting using gravity estimates as instrumental variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Eduardo A. Cavallo, 2008. "Output Volatility and Openness to Trade: a Reassessment," ECONOMIA JOURNAL, THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION - LACEA, vol. 0(Fall 2008), pages 105-152, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000425:008594
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    Cited by:

    1. Spiliopoulos, Leonidas, 2010. "The determinants of macroeconomic volatility: A Bayesian model averaging approach," MPRA Paper 26832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Silvana Tenreyro & Miklos Koren & Francesco Caselli, 2012. "Diversification through Trade," 2012 Meeting Papers 539, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    3. Dionysios K. Solomos & Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis, 2013. "Financial Sector and Business Cycles Determinants in the EMU: An Empirical Approach (1996-2011)," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(2), pages 34-58.
    4. Joshua Aizenman & Menzie D. Chinn & Hiro Ito, 2012. "The Financial Crisis, Rethinking of the Global Financial Architecture, and the Trilemma," Chapters,in: Monetary and Currency Policy Management in Asia, chapter 6 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Balavac, Merima & Pugh, Geoff, 2016. "The link between trade openness, export diversification, institutions and output volatility in transition countries," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 273-287.
    6. Montalbano, Pierluigi, 2011. "Trade Openness and Developing Countries' Vulnerability: Concepts, Misconceptions, and Directions for Research," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1489-1502, September.
    7. Cacciatore, Matteo, 2014. "International trade and macroeconomic dynamics with labor market frictions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 17-30.
    8. Parinduri, Rasyad, 2012. "Growth volatility and trade: evidence from the 1967-1975 closure of the Suez Canal," MPRA Paper 39040, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Marta Arespa, 2015. "Macroeconomic Volatility And International Integration," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(4), pages 393-410, October.
    10. Joshua Aizenman & Menzie D. Chinn & Hiro Ito, 2008. "Assessing the Emerging Global Financial Architecture: Measuring the Trilemma's Configurations over Time," NBER Working Papers 14533, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Calderon, Cesar & Loayza, Norman & Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus, 2005. "Does openness imply greater exposure ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3733, The World Bank.
    12. César Calderón and Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2007. "Zooming in: From Aggregate Volatility to Income Distribution," Business School Working Papers 2007-03, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella.
    13. Aizenman, Joshua & Chinn, Menzie D. & Ito, Hiro, 2011. "Surfing the waves of globalization: Asia and financial globalization in the context of the trilemma," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 290-320, September.
    14. Mulder, Nanno, 2009. "Weak links between exports and economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean," Comercio Internacional 91, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    15. Solomos, Dionysios & Papageorgiou, Theofanis & Koumparoulis, Dimitrios, 2012. "Financial Sector and Business Cycles Determinants in the EMU context: An Empirical Approach (1996-2011)," MPRA Paper 43858, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Barrot Araya,Luis Diego & Calderon,Cesar & Serven,Luis, 2016. "Openness, specialization, and the external vulnerability of developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7711, The World Bank.
    17. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:312-320 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. EDWARDS, Jeffrey, 2009. "Trading Partner Volatility And The Ability For A Country To Cope: A Panel Gmm Model, 1970-2005," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 9(2).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    openness to trade; output volatility; financial crises; gravity equation;

    JEL classification:

    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
    • F40 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - General

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