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Democracy, Veto Players and the Depth of Regional Integration

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  • Edward D. Mansfield
  • Helen V. Milner
  • Jon C. Pevehouse

Abstract

We examine how domestic political factors influence the type of regional integration arrangement (RIA) that states enter. States can pursue at least five types of RIA, in order of their depth of policy integration: preferential trade agreements, free trade areas, customs unions, common markets and economic unions. We argue that a country's regime type and the number of institutional ‘veto players’ strongly affect the type of arrangement that states choose. Democracies are more likely to form an RIA than other states, a tendency that becomes more pronounced as the proposed level of integration in an arrangement rises. However, all democracies are not the same. As the number of veto players rises, the likelihood of a democracy entering an RIA declines. Furthermore, veto players are expected to have a larger effect on the odds of a democracy forming an RIA, the greater is the extent of integration that the arrangement aims to achieve. A series of statistical tests, based on analysis of all pairs of countries from 1950 to 2000, support our arguments.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward D. Mansfield & Helen V. Milner & Jon C. Pevehouse, 2008. "Democracy, Veto Players and the Depth of Regional Integration," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(1), pages 67-96, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:worlde:v:31:y:2008:i:1:p:67-96
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9701.2007.01082.x
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    2. Philipp Hühne & Birgit Meyer & Peter Nunnenkamp & Martin Roy, 2016. "Democracies cooperate more: even where it threatens to bite?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(11), pages 812-815, July.
    3. Knill, April & Lee, Bong-Soo & Mauck, Nathan, 2012. "Bilateral political relations and sovereign wealth fund investment," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 108-123.
    4. Nauro Campos & Fabrizio Coricelli & Luigi Moretti, 2015. "Norwegian Rhapsody? The Political Economy Benefits of Regional Integration," Working Papers halshs-01267252, HAL.
    5. Rana, Arslan Tariq & Kebewar, Mazen, 2014. "The Political Economy of FDI flows into Developing Countries: Does the depth of International Trade Agreements Matter?," EconStor Preprints 91501, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    6. Jose Jaime Baena-Rojas & Susana Herrero-Olarte, 2020. "From Preferential Trade Arrangements to Free Trade Agreements: One of the Downturns of Cooperation in International Relations?," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 9(8), pages 1-17, August.
    7. Gary Winslett, 2016. "Public Opinion Distribution and Party Competition in US Trade Policy," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(8), pages 1128-1145, August.
    8. Nunnenkamp Peter, 2016. "Demokratie und internationale Investitionsabkommen: (Überraschende) Zusammenhänge und (lückenhafte) Erklärungen," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 17(4), pages 364-382, December.
    9. Yu Wang, 2013. "Veto Players and Foreign Aid Inflows," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(3), pages 391-408, September.
    10. Schopf, James Christopher, 2019. "Room for improvement: Why Korea's leading ICT ODA program has failed to combat corruption," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 501-519.
    11. Roy, Martin, 2010. "Endowments, power, and democracy: Political economy of multilateral commitments on trade in services," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2010-11, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    12. Eric Neumayer & Peter Nunnenkamp & Martin Roy, 2016. "Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(1), pages 177-213, February.
    13. Baier, Scott L. & Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., 2009. "Bonus vetus OLS: A simple method for approximating international trade-cost effects using the gravity equation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 77-85, February.
    14. Markus Gastinger, 2021. "Introducing the EU exit index measuring each member state’s propensity to leave the European Union," European Union Politics, , vol. 22(3), pages 566-585, September.
    15. Leonardo Baccini, 2010. "Explaining formation and design of EU trade agreements: The role of transparency and flexibility," European Union Politics, , vol. 11(2), pages 195-217, June.
    16. Yuan Li & Hans-Jörg Schmerer, 2017. "Trade and the New Silk Road: opportunities, challenges, and solutions," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 205-213, July.
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