IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Copula‐based analysis of multivariate dependence patterns between dimensions of poverty in Europe


  • César García‐Gómez
  • Ana Pérez
  • Mercedes Prieto‐Alaiz


It is widely recognized that poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon involving not only income, but also other aspects such as education or health. In this multidimensional setting, analyzing the dependence between dimensions becomes an important issue, since a high degree of dependence could exacerbate poverty. In this paper, we propose measuring the multivariate dependence between the dimensions of poverty in Europe using copula‐based methods. This approach focuses on the positions of individuals across dimensions, allowing for other types of dependence beyond linear correlation. In particular, we analyze how orthant dependence between the dimensions of the AROPE rate has evolved in the EU‐28 countries between 2008 and 2014 by applying non‐parametric estimates of multivariate copula‐based generalisations of Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. We find a general increase in the dependence between dimensions, regardless of the coefficient used. Moreover, countries with higher AROPE rates also tend to experiment more dependence between its dimensions.

Suggested Citation

  • César García‐Gómez & Ana Pérez & Mercedes Prieto‐Alaiz, 2021. "Copula‐based analysis of multivariate dependence patterns between dimensions of poverty in Europe," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 67(1), pages 165-195, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:revinw:v:67:y:2021:i:1:p:165-195
    DOI: 10.1111/roiw.12461

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Joe, Harry, 1990. "Multivariate concordance," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 12-30, October.
    2. Nickell, Stephen, 1979. "Education and Lifetime Patterns of Unemployment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 117-131, October.
    3. Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James, 2011. "Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 476-487, August.
    4. Manuela Deidda, 2015. "Economic Hardship, Housing Cost Burden and Tenure Status: Evidence from EU-SILC," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 531-556, December.
    5. Currie, Janet & Madrian, Brigitte C., 1999. "Health, health insurance and the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 50, pages 3309-3416, Elsevier.
    6. Koen Decancq, 2014. "Copula-based measurement of dependence between dimensions of well-being," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(3), pages 681-701.
    7. Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Maria Ana Lugo, 2013. "Multidimensional Poverty Analysis: Looking for a Middle Ground," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 28(2), pages 220-235, August.
    8. Pelkowski, Jodi Messer & Berger, Mark C., 2004. "The impact of health on employment, wages, and hours worked over the life cycle," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 102-121, February.
    9. Roger White (ed.), 2017. "Measuring Multidimensional Poverty and Deprivation," Global Perspectives on Wealth and Distribution, Palgrave Macmillan, number 978-3-319-58368-6, March.
    10. Riddell, W. Craig & Song, Xueda, 2011. "The impact of education on unemployment incidence and re-employment success: Evidence from the U.S. labour market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 453-463, August.
    11. Jacob Mincer, 1991. "Education and Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 3838, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Roger Nelsen & Manuel Úbeda-Flores, 2012. "Directional dependence in multivariate distributions," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer;The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, vol. 64(3), pages 677-685, June.
    13. Schmid, Friedrich & Schmidt, Rafael, 2007. "Multivariate extensions of Spearman's rho and related statistics," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 77(4), pages 407-416, February.
    14. García, Jesús E. & González-López, V.A. & Nelsen, R.B., 2013. "A new index to measure positive dependence in trivariate distributions," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 481-495.
    15. Rolf Aaberge & Anthony B. Atkinson & Sebastian Königs, 2018. "From classes to copulas: wages, capital, and top incomes," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 16(2), pages 295-320, June.
    16. Jean-Yves Duclos & Luca Tiberti, 2016. "Multidimensional poverty indices: A critical assessment," Cahiers de recherche 1602, CIRPEE.
    17. Genest, Christian & Nešlehová, Johanna G. & Rémillard, Bruno, 2013. "On the estimation of Spearman’s rho and related tests of independence for possibly discontinuous multivariate data," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 214-228.
    18. Decancq, Koen, 2012. "Elementary multivariate rearrangements and stochastic dominance on a Fréchet class," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(4), pages 1450-1459.
    19. Jacob Mincer, 1991. "Education and Unemployment of Women," NBER Working Papers 3837, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. M. Taylor, 2007. "Multivariate measures of concordance," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer;The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, vol. 59(4), pages 789-806, December.
    21. Suman Seth, 2013. "A class of distribution and association sensitive multidimensional welfare indices," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 11(2), pages 133-162, June.
    22. Nolan, Brian & Whelan, Christopher T., 2011. "Poverty and Deprivation in Europe," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199588435, Decembrie.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Merz, Joachim & Scherg, Bettina, 2021. "Time, Income and Subjective Well-Being - 20 Years of Interdependent Multidimensional Polarization in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 14870, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Marco Brandolini & Federica Coroneo & Elena Giarda & Cristiana Moriconi & Sarah Grace See, 2022. "Differences in Perceptions of the Housing Cost Burden Among European Countries," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 12(4), pages 1-5.
    3. Dorn, Franziska & Radice, Rosalba & Marra, Giampiero & Kneib, Thomas, 2021. "A bivariate relative poverty line for time and income poverty: Detecting intersectional differences using distributional copulas," University of Göttingen Working Papers in Economics 435, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    4. Koen Decancq, 2023. "Cumulative deprivation: identification and aggregation," Chapters, in: Udaya R. Wagle (ed.), Research Handbook on Poverty and Inequality, chapter 4, pages 52-67, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. César Garcia-Gomez & Ana Pérez & Mercedes Prieto-Alaiz, 2022. "The evolution of poverty in the EU-28: a further look based on multivariate tail dependence," Working Papers 605, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    6. Blier-Wong, Christopher & Cossette, Hélène & Marceau, Etienne, 2022. "Stochastic representation of FGM copulas using multivariate Bernoulli random variables," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 173(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Koen Decancq, 2020. "Measuring cumulative deprivation and affluence based on the diagonal dependence diagram," METRON, Springer;Sapienza Università di Roma, vol. 78(2), pages 103-117, August.
    2. Fabrizio Pompei & Ekaterina Selezneva, 2015. "Education Mismatch, Human Capital and Labour Status of Young People across European Union Countries," Working Papers 347, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
    3. Espinoza-Delgado, José & Klasen, Stephan, 2018. "Gender and multidimensional poverty in Nicaragua: An individual based approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 466-491.
    4. Pérez, Ana & Prieto-Alaiz, Mercedes, 2016. "A note on nonparametric estimation of copula-based multivariate extensions of Spearman’s rho," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 41-50.
    5. Andreu, Laura & Puetz, Alexander, 2017. "Choosing two business degrees versus choosing one: What does it tell about mutual fund managers' investment behavior?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 138-146.
    6. Mhamed Mesfioui & Julien Trufin, 2022. "Bounds on Multivariate Kendall’s Tau and Spearman’s Rho for Zero-Inflated Continuous Variables and their Application to Insurance," Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 1051-1059, June.
    7. Andreu, Laura & Pütz, Alexander, 2016. "Choosing two business degrees versus choosing one: What does it tell about mutual fund managers' investment behavior?," CFR Working Papers 12-01 [rev.2], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    8. García, Jesús E. & González-López, V.A. & Nelsen, R.B., 2013. "A new index to measure positive dependence in trivariate distributions," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 481-495.
    9. Liebscher Eckhard, 2014. "Copula-based dependence measures," Dependence Modeling, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-16, October.
    10. Espinoza-Delgado, José & Silber, Jacques, 2018. "Multi-dimensional poverty among adults in Central America and gender differences in the three I’s of poverty: Applying inequality sensitive poverty measures with ordinal variables," MPRA Paper 88750, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Angel de la Fuente & Juan Francisco Jimeno, 2004. "The private and fiscal returns to schooling and the effect of public policies on private incentives to invest in education: a general framework and some results for the EU," Working Papers 152, Barcelona School of Economics.
    12. Koen Decancq, 2017. "Measuring Multidimensional Inequality in the OECD Member Countries with a Distribution-Sensitive Better Life Index," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 131(3), pages 1057-1086, April.
    13. Rolf Aaberge & Andrea Brandolini, 2014. "Multidimensional poverty and inequality," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 976, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    14. Dop㉠M. Adjor & Lã‰Leng Kebalo, 2018. "Does Corruption Matter For Unemployment In Sadc Countries?," Review of Economic and Business Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 22, pages 65-92, December.
    15. Gaißer, Sandra & Ruppert, Martin & Schmid, Friedrich, 2010. "A multivariate version of Hoeffding's Phi-Square," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 101(10), pages 2571-2586, November.
    16. Kobus, Martyna & Kurek, Radosław, 2018. "Copula-based measurement of interdependence for discrete distributions," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 27-39.
    17. Francesco Burchi & Nicole Rippin & Claudio E. Montenegro, 2018. "From income poverty to multidimensional poverty—an international comparison," One Pager Arabic 400, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    18. Xinxiang Chen & Guangqing Chi, 2012. "Natural Beauty, Money, and the Distribution of Talent: A Local-Level Panel Data Analysis," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 31(5), pages 665-681, October.
    19. Darragh Flannery & Cathal O'Donoghue, 2016. "Utilizing Microsimulation to Estimate the Private and Fiscal Returns to Education: Ireland 1987–2011," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(1), pages 55-80, January.
    20. Giovanna Scarcilli, 2024. "Studying the evolution of cumulative deprivation among European countries with a copula-based approach," Working Papers 667, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:revinw:v:67:y:2021:i:1:p:165-195. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing or Christopher F. Baum (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.