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Estimation of the Rental Adjustment Process

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  • Patric H. Hendershott
  • Bryan D. MacGregor
  • Raymond Y.C. Tse

Abstract

Rental adjustment equations have been estimated for a quarter century. In the United States, models have used the deviation of the actual vacancy rate from the natural rate as the main explanatory variable, while in the United Kingdom, drivers of the demand for space have dominated the estimation. The recent papers of Hendershott (1996) and Hendershott, Lizieri and Matysiak (HLM 1999) fall into the former category. We reestimate these equations using alternative formulations and present evidence that changes in real interest rates were not capitalized into Sydney and London real land prices. We then derive a model incorporating supply and demand factors within an Error Correction framework and show how the U.S. and U.K. traditions are special cases of this more general formulation. We next estimate a two-equation variant with a separate vacancy rate equation using data from the City of London office market. This model allows calculation of the underlying price (rent) and income (employment) elasticities and explains the data marginally better than the HLM model. Importantly, our model passes standard modern econometric requirements for unit roots and cointegration. Copyright 2002 by the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Patric H. Hendershott & Bryan D. MacGregor & Raymond Y.C. Tse, 2002. "Estimation of the Rental Adjustment Process," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 30(2), pages 165-183.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:30:y:2002:i:2:p:165-183
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Banerjee, Anindya & Dolado, Juan J. & Galbraith, John W. & Hendry, David, 1993. "Co-integration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288107.
    2. Stuart A. Gabriel & Frank E. Nothaft, 1988. "Rental Housing Markets and the Natural Vacancy Rate," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 16(4), pages 419-429.
    3. Patric H. Hendershott & Edward J. Kane, 1992. "CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE 1980s COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION BOOM," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 5(1), pages 61-70.
    4. Arnott, Richard & Igarashi, Masahiro, 2000. "Rent control, mismatch costs and search efficiency," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 249-288, May.
    5. Richard Voith & Theodore Crone, 1988. "National Vacancy Rates and the Persistence of Shocks in U.S. Office Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 16(4), pages 437-458.
    6. Patric H. Hendershott & Colin M. Lizieri & George A. Matysiak, 1999. "The Workings of the London Office Market," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(2), pages 365-387.
    7. Rosen, Kenneth T & Smith, Lawrence B, 1983. "The Price-Adjustment Process for Rental Housing and the Natural Vacancy Rate," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 779-786, September.
    8. Hendershott, Patric H., 1996. "Rental Adjustment and Valuation in Overbuilt Markets: Evidence from the Sydney Office Market," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 51-67, January.
    9. William C. Wheaton & Raymond G. Torto, 1988. "Vacancy Rates and the Future of Office Rents," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 16(4), pages 430-436.
    10. Hendershott, Patric H, 2000. "Property Asset Bubbles: Evidence from the Sydney Office Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 67-81, January.
    11. Shilling, James D. & Sirmans, C. F. & Corgel, John B., 1987. "Price adjustment process for rental office space," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 90-100, July.
    12. Arthur A. Eubank & C. R. Sirmans, 1979. "The Price Adjustment Mechanism for Rental Housing in the United States," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 93(1), pages 163-168.
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    Cited by:

    1. Voigtländer, Michael, 2010. "The Link between the Office Market and Labour Market in Germany," MPRA Paper 23994, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Jonathan A. Wiley, 2014. "Gross Lease Premiums," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 42(3), pages 606-626, September.
    3. Zeno Adams & Roland Füss, 2012. "Disentangling the Short and Long-Run Effects of Occupied Stock in the Rental Adjustment Process," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 44(4), pages 570-590, May.
    4. Honglin Wang & Chu Zhang & Weihang Dai, 2013. "Rental Adjustment and Housing Prices: Evidence from Hong Kong's Residential Property Market," Working Papers 012013, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    5. Vanessa Gapriotti Nadalin, 2014. "Residential Vacancy in City Center: The Case of São Paulo," Discussion Papers 1987a, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
    6. Gunnelin, Åke & Söderberg, Bo, 2002. "Term Structures in the Office Rental Market in Stockholm," SIFR Research Report Series 6, Institute for Financial Research.
    7. Peter Englund & Ake Gunnelin & Patric H. Hendershott & Bo Soderberg, 2005. "Adjustment in Property Space Markets: Estimates from the Stockholm Office Market," NBER Working Papers 11345, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Vanessa Gapriotti Nadalin, 2015. "Residential Vacancy In City Center: The Case Of São Paulo," Discussion Papers 0201, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
    9. repec:eee:jimfin:v:82:y:2018:i:c:p:120-140 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. V.Atilla Oven & Dilek Pekdemir, 2004. "A comparison between office rent determinants of Istanbul and other major metropolitan areas," ERSA conference papers ersa04p166, European Regional Science Association.
    11. Cheong, Chee Seng & Gerlach, Richard & Stevenson, Simon & Wilson, Patrick J. & Zurbruegg, Ralf, 2009. "Equity and fixed income markets as drivers of securitised real estate," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 103-111, April.
    12. Dirk Brounen & Maarten Jennen, 2009. "Local Office Rent Dynamics," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 385-402, November.
    13. Clark, David & Pennington-Cross, Anthony, 2016. "Determinants of industrial property rents in the Chicago metropolitan area," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 34-45.
    14. K. W. Chau & S. K. Wong, 2016. "Information Asymmetry and the Rent and Vacancy Rate Dynamics in the Office Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 53(2), pages 162-183, August.
    15. Maria Ibanez & Anthony Pennington-Cross, 2013. "Commercial Property Rent Dynamics in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: An Examination of Office, Industrial, Flex and Retail Space," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 232-259, February.
    16. Patric Hendershott & Colin Lizieri & Bryan MacGregor, 2010. "Asymmetric Adjustment in the City of London Office Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 80-101, July.
    17. Dieci, Roberto & Westerhoff, Frank, 2016. "Heterogeneous expectations, boom-bust housing cycles, and supply conditions: A nonlinear economic dynamics approach," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 21-44.
    18. V. Öven & Dilek Pekdemir, 2006. "Office Rent Determinants Utilising Factor Analysis—A Case Study for İstanbul," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 51-73, August.
    19. Kennedy, Gerard & Sheenan, Lisa & Woods, Maria, 2016. "Modelling Irish Rents: Recent Developments in Historical Context," Economic Letters 14/EL/16, Central Bank of Ireland.
    20. Franz Fuerst & Anna-Maija Grandy, "undated". ""Oft Expectation Fails": A Time-Series Analysis of Construction Starts in the London Office Market," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2010-13, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    21. Dieci, Roberto & Westerhoff, Frank, 2015. "Heterogeneous expectations, boom-bust housing cycles, and supply conditions: A nonlinear dynamics approach," BERG Working Paper Series 99, Bamberg University, Bamberg Economic Research Group.
    22. Jonathan Wiley & Justin Benefield & Ken Johnson, 2010. "Green Design and the Market for Commercial Office Space," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 228-243, August.

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    JEL classification:

    • R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location

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