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Evaluating Statistical Models of Mortgage Lending Discrimination: A Bank-Specific Analysis

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  • Mitchell Stengel
  • Dennis Glennon

Abstract

We present our efforts to develop bank-specific models to test for the presence of mortgage lending discrimination. We discuss the potential for selection and simultaneity biases and delineate the conditions under which a single-equation model is appropriate. The results from three national banks demonstrate that, by incorporating the specific underwriting guidelines of each bank, our alternative approach significantly improves the ability of the model to explain the outcomes of the mortgage lending decision process when compared to a single generic specification applied across all banks. Our results also demonstrate the difficulties encountered in attempting to incorporate the specifics of a bank's underwriting criteria and the remaining potential for omitted-variables problems. Copyright American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Mitchell Stengel & Dennis Glennon, 1999. "Evaluating Statistical Models of Mortgage Lending Discrimination: A Bank-Specific Analysis," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(2), pages 299-334.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:27:y:1999:i:2:p:299-334
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119.
    2. Munnell, Alicia H. & Geoffrey M. B. Tootell & Lynn E. Browne & James McEneaney, 1996. "Mortgage Lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 25-53, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Judith A. Giles & Marsha J. Courchane, 2000. "Stratified Sample Design for Fair Lending Binary Logit Models," Econometrics Working Papers 0007, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    2. Stephen L. Ross & John Yinger, 2002. "Looking the Other Way: A Critique of the Fair-Lending Enforcement System and a Plan to Fix It," Center for Policy Research Policy Briefs 24, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    3. Judith Clarke & Nilanjana Roy & Marsha Courchane, 2009. "On the robustness of racial discrimination findings in mortgage lending studies," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(18), pages 2279-2297.
    4. Jason Dietrich, 2005. "Under-specified Models and Detection of Discrimination: A Case Study of Mortgage Lending," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 83-105, August.
    5. Dawkins, Mark C., 2002. "Simultaneity bias in mortgage lending: A test of simultaneous equations models on bank-specific data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 1593-1613, August.
    6. Ross, Stephen L. & Turner, Margery Austin & Godfrey, Erin & Smith, Robin R., 2008. "Mortgage lending in Chicago and Los Angeles: A paired testing study of the pre-application process," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 902-919, May.
    7. Yan Zhang, 2013. "Fair Lending Analysis of Mortgage Pricing: Does Underwriting Matter?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 131-151, January.
    8. Chau Do & Irina Paley, 2007. "Explaining the Growth of Higher-Priced Loans in HMDA: A Decomposition Approach," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 29(4), pages 441-478.
    9. Paul S. Calem & Stanley D. Longhofer, 2000. "Anatomy of a fair-lending exam: the uses and limitations of statistics," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    10. Blanchard, Lloyd & Zhao, Bo & Yinger, John, 2008. "Do lenders discriminate against minority and woman entrepreneurs?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 467-497, March.
    11. Judith Clarke & Marsha Courchane, 2004. "Implications of Stratified Sampling for Fair Lending Binary Logit Models," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 5-31, October.
    12. Stephen L. Ross, 2003. "What Is Known about Testing for Discrimination: Lessons Learned by Comparing across Different Markets," Working papers 2003-21, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2003.
    13. Lloyd Blanchard & Bo Zhao & John Yinger, 2005. "Do Credit Market Barriers Exist for Minority and Women Entrepreneurs?," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 74, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    14. Su, Qing, 2015. "Determinants of mortgage pricing: A quantile regression analysisAuthor-Name: Al-Bahrani, Abdullah," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 77-85.
    15. Song Han, 2011. "Creditor Learning and Discrimination in Lending," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 1-27, October.
    16. Paul S. Calem & Stanley D. Longhofer, 2000. "Anatomy of a fair-lending exam: the uses and limitations of statistics," Working Paper 0003R, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, revised 30 Jul 2000.

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