IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Inflation Targeting and Fear of Floating in Brazil, Mexico and South Korea


  • Reginaldo Pinto Nogueira Junior

    (Fundação João Pinheiro)


We present evidence on Fear of Floating (FF) practices before and after the adoption of Inflation Targeting (IT) for three emerging countries that faced important exchange rate crises in the 1990’s (Brazil, Mexico and South Korea). We start using the methodologies proposed by Calvo and Reinhart (2002) and Ball and Reyes (2008), and check the probabilities of observing small monthly exchange rate changes, combined with large movements in policy instruments (international reserves and interest rates), which should indicate some degree of exchange rate targeting. This initial exercise suggests a progress towards greater exchange rate flexibility after IT. We then use a VAR model to analyse the monetary policy response to exchange rate and inflation shocks, and detect a drastic reduction in direct intervention in the foreign exchange market after IT, accompanied by a stronger response to inflation. These findings are consistent with the IT framework, and suggest a reduced role for FF.

Suggested Citation

  • Reginaldo Pinto Nogueira Junior, 2009. "Inflation Targeting and Fear of Floating in Brazil, Mexico and South Korea," Economia, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics], vol. 10(2), pages 195-209.
  • Handle: RePEc:anp:econom:v:10:y:2009:i:2:195-209

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ball, Christopher P. & Reyes, Javier, 2008. "Inflation targeting or fear of floating in disguise? A broader perspective," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 308-326, March.
    2. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "Fear of Floating," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
    3. Guillermo A. Calvo & Frederic S. Mishkin, 2003. "The Mirage of Exchange Rate Regimes for Emerging Market Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(4), pages 99-118, Fall.
    4. Hausmann, Ricardo & Panizza, Ugo & Stein, Ernesto, 2001. "Why do countries float the way they float?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 387-414, December.
    5. Christopher P. Ball & Javier Reyes, 2004. "Inflation targeting or fear of floating in disguise: the case of Mexico," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(1), pages 49-69.
    6. Sack, Brian & Wieland, Volker, 2000. "Interest-rate smoothing and optimal monetary policy: a review of recent empirical evidence," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 205-228.
    7. Pesaran, H. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 1998. "Generalized impulse response analysis in linear multivariate models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 17-29, January.
    8. Stanley Fischer, 2001. "Exchange Rate Regimes: Is the Bipolar View Correct?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 3-24, Spring.
    9. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2004. "Can Inflation Targeting Work in Emerging Market Countries?," NBER Working Papers 10646, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Flood, Robert P. & Jeanne, Olivier, 2005. "An interest rate defense of a fixed exchange rate?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 471-484, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:149-160 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Inflation Targeting; Fear of Floating;

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:anp:econom:v:10:y:2009:i:2:195-209. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rodrigo Zadra Armond). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.