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The Rescue of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac

Author

Listed:
  • W. Scott Frame
  • Andreas Fuster
  • Joseph Tracy
  • James Vickery

Abstract

The imposition of federal conservatorships on September 6, 2008, at the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation—commonly known as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac—was one of the most dramatic events of the financial crisis. These two government-sponsored enterprises play a central role in the US housing finance system, and at the start of their conservatorships held or guaranteed about $5.2 trillion of home mortgage debt. The two firms were often cited as shining examples of public-private partnerships—that is, the harnessing of private capital to advance the social goal of expanding homeownership. But in reality, the hybrid structures of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were destined to fail at some point, owing to their singular exposure to residential real estate and moral hazard incentives emanating from the implicit guarantee of their liabilities. We describe the financial distress experienced by the two firms, the events that led the federal government to take dramatic action in an effort to stabilize housing and financial markets, and the various resolution options available to US policymakers at the time; and we evaluate the success of the choice of conservatorship in terms of its effects on financial markets and financial stability, on mortgage supply, and on the financial position of the two firms themselves. Conservatorship achieved its key short-run goals of stabilizing mortgage markets and promoting financial stability during a period of extreme stress. However, conservatorship was intended to be a temporary fix, not a long-term solution, and more than six years later, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac still remain in conservatorship.

Suggested Citation

  • W. Scott Frame & Andreas Fuster & Joseph Tracy & James Vickery, 2015. "The Rescue of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 29(2), pages 25-52, Spring.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:jecper:v:29:y:2015:i:2:p:25-52
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/jep.29.2.25
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. David Finkelstein & Andreas Strzodka & James Vickery, 2018. "Credit risk transfer and de facto GSE reform," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 24-3, pages 88-116.
    2. Sedunov, John, 2020. "Small banks and consumer satisfaction," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    3. W. Scott Frame, 2016. "The federal home loan bank system and U.S. housing finance," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2016-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    4. Jesper Berg & Morten Bækmand Nielsen & James Vickery, 2018. "Peas in a pod? Comparing the U.S. and Danish mortgage finance systems," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 24-3, pages 63-87.
    5. W. Scott Frame & Kristopher S. Gerardi & Paul S. Willen, 2015. "The failure of supervisory stress testing: Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and OFHEO," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2015-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    6. Amine Ouazad & Matthew E. Kahn, 2019. "Mortgage Finance and Climate Change: Securitization Dynamics in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters," NBER Working Papers 26322, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Jason Thomas & Robert Order, 2020. "Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac: Risk-Taking and the Option to Change Strategy," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 60(3), pages 270-307, April.
    8. Chwieroth, Jeffrey M. & Walter, Andrew, 2019. "The financialization of mass wealth, banking crises and politics over the long run," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 100765, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    9. Rice, Tara & Rose, Jonathan, 2016. "When good investments go bad: The contraction in community bank lending after the 2008 GSE takeover," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 68-88.
    10. Michael Jacobs, 2016. "Stress Testing and a Comparison of Alternative Methodologies for Scenario Generation," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 6(6), pages 1-7.
    11. W. Scott Frame & Joseph Tracy, 2018. "Introduction to Special Issue: The Appropriate Role of Government in U.S. Mortgage Markets," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 24-3, pages 1-10.
    12. W. Scott Frame, 2015. "Introduction to Special Issue: Government Involvement in Residential Mortgage Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 43(4), pages 807-819, November.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • H81 - Public Economics - - Miscellaneous Issues - - - Governmental Loans; Loan Guarantees; Credits; Grants; Bailouts

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