IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/aea/aecrev/v91y2001i5p1329-1349.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Why Regulate Insider Trading? Evidence from the First Great Merger Wave (1897-1903)

Author

Listed:
  • Ajeyo Banerjee
  • E. Woodrow Eckard

Abstract

We use event-time methodology to study legal insider trading associated with mergers circa 1900. For mergers with "prospective" disclosures similar to today's, we find substantial value gains at announcement, implying participation by "outside" shareholders despite the absence of insider constraints. Furthermore, preannouncement stock-price runups, relative to total value gain, are no more than those observed for modern mergers. Insider regulation apparently has produced little benefit for outsiders, with the inside information-pricing function and related gains shifting to external "information specialists." Other results suggest market penalties for nondisclosure; i.e., insider trading is less successful in a restricted information environment.

Suggested Citation

  • Ajeyo Banerjee & E. Woodrow Eckard, 2001. "Why Regulate Insider Trading? Evidence from the First Great Merger Wave (1897-1903)," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1329-1349, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:91:y:2001:i:5:p:1329-1349 Note: DOI: 10.1257/aer.91.5.1329
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.91.5.1329
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to AEA members and institutional subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1985. "Using daily stock returns : The case of event studies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-31, March.
    2. Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
    3. Dodd, Peter & Warner, Jerold B., 1983. "On corporate governance : A study of proxy contests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 401-438, April.
    4. Bhattacharya, Utpal & Daouk, Hazem & Jorgenson, Brian & Kehr, Carl-Heinrich, 2000. "When an event is not an event: the curious case of an emerging market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, pages 69-101.
    5. Pound, John & Zeckhauser, Richard J, 1990. "Clearly Heard on the Street: The Effect of Takeover Rumors on Stock Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(3), pages 291-308, July.
    6. Schwert, G. William, 1996. "Markup pricing in mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, pages 153-192.
    7. Keown, Arthur J & Pinkerton, John M, 1981. "Merger Announcements and Insider Trading Activity: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(4), pages 855-869, September.
    8. Michael C. Jensen, 2010. "The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 22(1), pages 43-58.
    9. Jarrell, Gregg A, 1981. "The Economic Effects of Federal Regulation of the Market for New Security Issues," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 613-675, December.
    10. Michael J. Fishman & Kathleen M. Hagerty, 1989. "Disclosure Decisions by Firms and the Competition for Price Efficiency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 633-646, July.
    11. Lisa K. Meulbroek & Carolyn Hart, 1997. "The Effect of Illegal Insider Trading on Takeover Premia," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 1(1), pages 51-80.
    12. Fishman, Michael J & Hagerty, Kathleen M, 1989. " Disclosure Decisions by Firms and the Competition for Price Efficienc y," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 633-646, July.
    13. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    14. Seyhun, H. Nejat, 1986. "Insiders' profits, costs of trading, and market efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 189-212, June.
    15. Ausubel, Lawrence M, 1990. "Insider Trading in a Rational Expectations Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1022-1041.
    16. Haddock, David D & Macey, Jonathan R, 1987. "Regulation on Demand: A Private Interest Model, with an Application to Insider Trading Regulation," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 311-352, October.
    17. Demsetz, Harold, 1986. "Corporate Control, Insider Trading, and Rates of Return," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 313-316.
    18. Jarrell, Gregg A & Bradley, Michael, 1980. "The Economic Effects of Federal and State Regulations of Cash Tender Offers," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(2), pages 371-407, October.
    19. Jarrell, Gregg A & Poulsen, Annette B, 1989. "Stock Trading before the Announcement of Tender Offers: Insider Trading or Market Anticipation?," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 225-248, Fall.
    20. Ajeyo Banerjee & E. Woodrow Eckard, 1998. "Are Mega-Mergers Anticompetitive? Evidence from the First Great Merger Wave," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, pages 803-827.
    21. H. T. Warshow, 1924. "The Distribution of Corporate Ownership in the United States," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(1), pages 15-38.
    22. Givoly, Dan & Palmon, Dan, 1985. "Insider Trading and the Exploitation of Inside Information: Some Empirical Evidence," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(1), pages 69-87, January.
    23. Meulbroek, Lisa K, 1992. " An Empirical Analysis of Illegal Insider Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(5), pages 1661-1699, December.
    24. Hawkins, David F., 1963. "The Development of Modern Financial Reporting Practices among American Manufacturing Corporations," Business History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(03), pages 135-168, September.
    25. Fama, Eugene F, 1991. " Efficient Capital Markets: II," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(5), pages 1575-1617, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Aitken, Michael & Cumming, Douglas & Zhan, Feng, 2015. "High frequency trading and end-of-day price dislocation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 330-349.
    2. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:7:y:2008:i:2:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Bialkowski, Jedrzej & Gottschalk, Katrin & Wisniewski, Tomasz Piotr, 2008. "Stock market volatility around national elections," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1941-1953, September.
    4. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-072 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Frédéric Demerens & Dorra Najar & Jean-Louis Paré & Jean Redis, 2013. "Typology of stock market offenses in France: An analysis of sanctions by the AMF since 2006," Post-Print hal-00992928, HAL.
    6. Eric Hilt, 2014. "History of American Corporate Governance: Law, Institutions, and Politics," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 6(1), pages 1-21, December.
    7. Akbas, Ferhat & Meschke, Felix & Wintoki, M. Babajide, 2016. "Director networks and informed traders," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 1-23.
    8. Kling, Gerhard, 2006. "The long-term impact of mergers and the emergence of a merger wave in pre-World-War I Germany," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 667-688, October.
    9. Fabio Braggion & Lyndon Moore, 2013. "How insiders traded before rules," Business History, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 565-584.
    10. Wisniewski, Tomasz P. & Bohl, Martin T., 2005. "The Information Content of Registered Insider Trading Under Lax Law Enforcement," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 169-185, June.
    11. Gerhard Kling, 2008. "Disclosure of mergers without regulatory restrictions: Insider trading in pre-1914 Germany," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 7(2), pages 1-7.
    12. Frédéric Demerens & Dorra Najar & Jean Louis Paré & Jean Redis, 2014. "Typology of stock market offenses in France: An analysis of sanctions by the AMF since 2006," Working Papers 2014-72, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    13. Cziraki, P. & de Goeij, P. C. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2010. "Insider Trading, Option Exercises and Private Benefits of Control (Revision of DP 2010-32)," Discussion Paper 2010-90, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • N21 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • N81 - Economic History - - Micro-Business History - - - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:91:y:2001:i:5:p:1329-1349. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Voros) or (Michael P. Albert). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/aeaaaea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.