International Trade Patterns over the Last Four Decades: How does Portugal Compare with other Cohesion Countries?
AbstractThis paper compares the international trade pattern of Portugal with the other three EU15 Cohesion countries - Spain, Greece and Ireland - over the last forty years. The paper adopts a fact-finding approach, investigating the degree of openness of these economies and making extensive use of the standard Balassa (1965) index to assess the technological content of these countries' manufacturing trade. In order to infer on international trade specialization and on the persistence of trade patterns, the paper provides empirical evidence on the shape of the cross-sector distribution of 120 manufacturing exports and examines the intra-distribution dynamics. The Balassa index is also computed using import data, which allows for an assessment on the similitude of relative import structures and a crude identification of major vertical specialization activities. The paper concludes that there was a significant increase in the degree of openness of all economies, particularly in Ireland. Over the last four decades, Portugal shows a tendency to reduce its overall extent of export specialization, but significant differences with the world average still remain. The same behaviour is found in Greece and, more strongly, in Spain, which is the least specialized country. Conversely, Ireland shows the strongest export specialization and there is evidence of an increase in the last twenty years. The overall degree of specialization is higher on the export than on the import side, as the four countries analyzed show an import structure very close to the world average in the 2000-04 period. In the Portuguese case, we also find evidence that the degree of persistence of export patterns is higher than that of imports, in particular over longer horizons.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department in its series Working Papers with number w200714.
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Amador, João & Cabral, Sónia & Ramos Maria, José, 2007. "International Trade Patterns over the Last Four Decades: How does Portugal Compare with other Cohesion Countries?," MPRA Paper 5996, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
- F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
- O50 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Shafaeddin, S. M., 2004. "Is China's accession to WTO threatening exports of developing countries?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 109-144, January.
- Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
- Barry, F & Bradley, J, 1997.
""FDI and Trade : The Irish Host-Country Experience","
97/13, College Dublin, Department of Political Economy-.
- David L. Hummels & Georg Schaur, 2013.
"Time as a Trade Barrier,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 103(7), pages 2935-59, December.
- Limao, Nuno & Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Infrastructure, geographical disadvantage, and transport costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2257, The World Bank.
- Luca De Benedictis, 2005. "Three Decades of Italian Comparative Advantages," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(11), pages 1679-1709, November.
- Sanjaya Lall, 2000. "The Technological Structure and Performance of Developing Country Manufactured Exports, 1985-98," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(3), pages 337-369.
- Luca DE BENEDICTIS & Massimo TAMBERI, 2002. "A note on the Balassa Index of Revealed Comparative Advantage," Working Papers 158, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- Hummels, David, 1999. "Toward a Geography of Trade Costs," GTAP Working Papers 1162, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
- Michele Di Maio & Federico Tamagni, 2007.
"The Evolution of the World Trade and the Italian ‘Anomaly’: A New Look,"
Development Working Papers
227, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
- Michele Di Maio & Federico Tamagni, 2008. "The Evolution of World Export Sophistication and the Italian Trade Anomaly," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 98(1), pages 135-174, January-F.
- Michele Di Maio & Federico Tamagni, 2006. "The evolution of world trade and the Italian â€˜anomaly': a new look," Working Papers 39-2006, Macerata University, Department of Finance and Economic Sciences, revised Oct 2008.
- Luca De Benedictis & Massimo Tamberi, 2004. "Overall Specialization Empirics: Techniques and Applications," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 323-346, October.
- Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Enrico Pinali & Massimo Geloso Grosso, 2006. "Logistics and Time as a Trade Barrier," OECD Trade Policy Papers 35, OECD Publishing.
- Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001.
"The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
- David Hummels & Jun Ishii & Kei-Mu Yi, 1999. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Staff Reports 72, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Kei-Mu Yi, 2000.
"Can vertical specialization explain the growth of world trade?,"
96, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Kei-Mu Yi, 2003. "Can Vertical Specialization Explain the Growth of World Trade?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(1), pages 52-102, February.
- Quah, Danny, 1993.
"Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 426-434, April.
- Danny Quah, 1992. "Empirical Cross-Section Dynamics in Economic Growth," FMG Discussion Papers dp154, Financial Markets Group.
- Danny Quah, 1992. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 75, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004.
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
- Luca De Benedictis & Marco Gallegati & Massimo Tamberi, 2007. "Semiparametric analysis of the specialization-income relationship," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4), pages 301-306.
- repec:taf:jecmet:v:15:y:2008:i:4:p:301-306 is not listed on IDEAS
- Widgrén, Mika, 2005. "Revealed Comparative Advantage in the Internal Market," Discussion Papers 989, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
- Guillaume Gaulier & Françoise Lemoine & Deniz Ünal-Kesenci, 2005. "China’s Integration in East Asia: Production Sharing, FDI & High-Tech Trade," Working Papers 2005-09, CEPII research center.
- J. David Richardson & Chi Zhang, 1999. "Revealing Comparative Advantage: Chaotic or Coherent Patterns Across Time and Sector and U.S. Trading Partner?," NBER Working Papers 7212, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Falko Juessen, 2005. "A distribution dynamics approach to regional income convergence in reunified Germany," ERSA conference papers ersa05p411, European Regional Science Association.
- Michael Peneder, 2003. "Industry Classifications: Aim, Scope and Techniques," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 109-129, March.
- Bent Dalum & Keld Laursen & Gert Villumsen, 1998. "Structural Change in OECD Export Specialisation Patterns: de-specialisation and 'stickiness'," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 423-443.
- Johnson, Paul A., 2005.
"A continuous state space approach to "Convergence by Parts","
Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 317-321, March.
- Johnson, Paul, 2003. "A Continuous State Space Approach to “Convergence by Parts”," Vassar College Department of Economics Working Paper Series 54, Vassar College Department of Economics.
- Philip McCann, 2005. "Transport costs and new economic geography," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(3), pages 305-318, June.
- Krugman, Paul R., 1979. "Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 469-479, November.
- David Hummels & Volodymyr Lugovskyy, 2006. "Are Matched Partner Trade Statistics a Usable Measure of Transportation Costs?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 69-86, 02.
- Bliss, Christopher, 1999. "Galton's Fallacy and Economic Convergence," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(1), pages 4-14, January.
- Luca De Benedictis & Marco Gallegati & Massimo Tamberi, .
"Overall Specialization and Income: Countries Diversify,"
73, Sapienza University of Rome, CIDEI.
- Luca De Benedictis & Marco Gallegati & Massimo Tamberi, 2006. "Overall Specialization and Income: Countries Diversity," Working Papers 37-2006, Macerata University, Department of Finance and Economic Sciences, revised Oct 2008.
- Jeroen Hinloopen & Charles Marrewijk, 2001. "On the empirical distribution of the Balassa index," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 1-35, March.
- Proudman, James & Redding, Stephen, 2000.
"Evolving Patterns of International Trade,"
Review of International Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 373-96, August.
- James Proudman & Stephen Redding, 2000. "Evolving patterns of international trade," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 206, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Proudman, J. & Redding, S., 1998. "Evolving Patterns of International Trade," Economics Papers 144, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Keld Laursen, 1998. "Revealed Comparative Advantage and the Alternatives as Measures of International Specialisation," DRUID Working Papers 98-30, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- Jeroen Hinloopen & Charles van Marrewijk, 2004. "Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-034/2, Tinbergen Institute.
- Andrea Brasili & Paolo Epifani & Rodolfo Helg, 1999.
"On the dynamics of trade patterns,"
LIUC Papers in Economics
61, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
- Andrea Brasili & Paolo Epifani & Rodolfo Helg, 2000. "On the Dynamics of Trade Patterns," KITeS Working Papers 115, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jul 2000.
- Andrea Brasili & Paolo Epifani & Rodolfo Helg, 2000. "On the Dynamics of Trade Patterns," International Trade 0004006, EconWPA.
- Proudman, James & Redding, Stephen J, 1998. "Persistence and Mobility in International Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 1802, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Sanjaya Lall (QEH), John Weiss and Jinkang Zhang, . "The 'Sophistication' Of Exports: A New Measure Of Product Characteristics," QEH Working Papers qehwps123, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Paulo Soares Esteves & Sónia Cabral, 2006. "Portuguese Export Market Shares: An Analysis by Selected Geographical and Product Markets," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
- Ballance, Robert H & Forstner, Helmut & Murray, Tracy, 1987. "Consistency Tests of Alternative Measures of Comparative Advantage," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(1), pages 157-61, February.
- C. A. Hidalgo & B. Klinger & A. -L. Barabasi & R. Hausmann, 2007. "The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations," Papers 0708.2090, arXiv.org.
- Wyplosz, Charles (ed.), 2001. "The Impact of EMU on Europe and the Developing Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199245314, Octomber.
- Thomas Vollrath, 1991. "A theoretical evaluation of alternative trade intensity measures of revealed comparative advantage," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 127(2), pages 265-280, June.
- David Hummels & Volodymyr Lugovskyy & Alexandre Skiba, 2007.
"The Trade Reducing Effects of Market Power in International Shipping,"
NBER Working Papers
12914, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hummels, David & Lugovskyy, Volodymyr & Skiba, Alexandre, 2009. "The trade reducing effects of market power in international shipping," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 84-97, May.
- Maria Mancusi, 2001. "Technological specialization in industrial countries: Patterns and dynamics," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 137(4), pages 593-621, December.
- Mary Amiti, 1997.
"Specialisation Patterns in Europe,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0363, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Mary Amiti, 1999. "Specialization patterns in Europe," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 135(4), pages 573-593, December.
- Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-59, December.
- João Amador & Sónia Cabral & José R. Maria, 2006.
"Relative Export Structures and Vertical Specialization: A Simple Cross-Country Index,"
Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles,
Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
- João Amador & Sónia Cabral & José R. Maria, 2007. "Relative Export Structures and Vertical Specialization: A Simple Cross-Country Index," Working Papers w200701, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (DEE-NTDD).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.