The 'Sophistication' Of Exports: A New Measure Of Product Characteristics
AbstractTrade data are often classified by product characteristics in the trade, technology and development literature to analyze trade patterns, competitive performance and structural change. However, existing classifications are constrained in that trade data are far more detailed than the industry data on which categories are based (e.g. current classifications only have 4-5 technology groups). We propose a new classification - 'sophistication' - as a means of analyzing product characteristics in great detail, based on the average income of exporting economies. Sophistication captures more than technical characteristics; it includes product differentiation, production fragmentation, resource availability and other factors. However, it has the advantage of providing unique continuous scores for each product at any level of detail. We calculate sophistication scores for 237 exports at the 3-digit SITC level and 766 exports at the 4-digit level for 1990 and 2000 (detailed values can be provided on request). We show sophistication scores for exports by selected countries, technology groups and industries. Our intention is to provide a database for further empirical analysis.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford in its series QEH Working Papers with number qehwps123.
Date of creation:
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Queen Elizabeth House 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TB United Kingdom
Phone: +44 (1865) 281800
Fax: +44 (1865) 281801
Web page: http://www.qeh.ox.ac.uk/
More information through EDIRC
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-07-15 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2006-07-15 (Development)
- NEP-INT-2006-07-15 (International Trade)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lall, Sanjaya, 1992. "Technological capabilities and industrialization," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 165-186, February.
- Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001.
"The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade,"
Journal of International Economics, Elsevier,
Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
- David Hummels & Jun Ishii & Kei-Mu Yi, 1999. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Staff Reports, Federal Reserve Bank of New York 72, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Arndt, Sven W. & Kierzkowski, Henryk (ed.), 2001. "Fragmentation: New Production Patterns in the World Economy," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, number 9780199243310, October.
- Thomas Hatzichronoglou, 1997. "Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 1997/2, OECD Publishing.
- Sanjaya Lall, Manuel Albaladejo and Jinkang Zhang (QEH), .
"Mapping Fragmentation: Electronics and Automobiles in East Asia and Latin America,"
QEH Working Papers, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford
qehwps115, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Sanjaya Lall & Manuel Albaladejo & Jinkang Zhang, 2004. "Mapping fragmentation: Electronics and automobiles in East Asia and Latin America," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(3), pages 407-432.
- Minondo, Asier, 2007. "¿Cuál es el grado de sofisticación de las exportaciones manufactureras españolas?/What is Spanish Manufacturing Exports' Sophistication Degree?," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 25, Diciembre.
- Cimoli, Mario & Pereira, Wellington & Porcile, Gabriel & Scatolin, Fabio, 2008. "Structural Change, Technology, and Economic Growth: Brazil and the CIBS in a Comparative Perspective," Working Paper Series, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Mario Cimoli & Wellington Pereira & Gabriel Porcile & Fábio Scatolin, 2011. "Structural change, technology, and economic growth: Brazil and the CIBS in a comparative perspective," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 25-47, April.
- Shusong Ba & Shanshan Shen, 2010. "Research on China’s export structure to the US: Analysis based on the US economic growth and exchange rate," Frontiers of Economics in China, Springer, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 339-355, September.
- João Amador & Sónia Cabral & José R. Maria, 2007.
"International Trade Patterns over the Last Four Decades: How does Portugal Compare with other Cohesion Countries?,"
Working Papers, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department
w200714, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
- Amador, João & Cabral, Sónia & Ramos Maria, José, 2007. "International Trade Patterns over the Last Four Decades: How does Portugal Compare with other Cohesion Countries?," MPRA Paper 5996, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rachel Crawford).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.