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Relative Export Structures and Vertical Specialization: A Simple Cross-Country Index

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  • João Amador
  • Sónia Cabral
  • José R. Maria

Abstract

Relative export structures have changed substantially over the last forty years. We map these changes using a new cross-country specialization index - the B* -, defined as the export weight of a given product on total domestic exports, “normalized” by the average weight across all countries of the world. This indicator is close to the Revealed Comparative Advantage index suggested in Balassa (1965); it has been used as an intermediate calculation in some papers but it has never been highlighted or interpreted as an alternative index in its own right. We provide empirical evidence on the shape of the distribution of the B* for different technological sectors (high, medium-high, medium-low and low-technology sectors), how it has evolved through time and how its intra-distribution dynamics behave. The results indicate a relatively important degree of persistence, although the cross-country specialization distributions depict substantial differences as we move up the technology ladder. Special attention is given to the G5 countries and China. These economies are relatively more specialized in high-tech and medium high-tech products. China shows a striking increase in specialization in high-tech products and a substantial decrease in low-tech. Finally, by computing the B* for both exports and imports, we have identified countries with significant vertical specialization activities. These activities are predominant in high-tech industries and seem to be geographically concentrated in East-Asia.

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Paper provided by Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department in its series Working Papers with number w200701.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ptu:wpaper:w200701

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  1. Shafaeddin, S. M., 2004. "Is China's accession to WTO threatening exports of developing countries?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 109-144, January.
  2. Luca De Benedictis & Massimo Tamberi, 2004. "Overall Specialization Empirics: Techniques and Applications," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 323-346, October.
  3. Luca DE BENEDICTIS & Massimo TAMBERI, 2002. "A note on the Balassa Index of Revealed Comparative Advantage," Working Papers 158, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
  4. Luca De Benedictis, 2005. "Three Decades of Italian Comparative Advantages," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(11), pages 1679-1709, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Fukunari Kimura & Ayako Obashi, 2011. "Production Networks in East Asia : What We Know So Far," Microeconomics Working Papers 23216, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  2. Lee, Jim, 2011. "Export specialization and economic growth around the world," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 45-63, March.
  3. Amador, João & Cabral, Sónia, 2008. "Vertical specialization across the world: a relative measure," MPRA Paper 9618, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Amador, João & Cabral, Sónia & Ramos Maria, José, 2007. "International Trade Patterns over the Last Four Decades: How does Portugal Compare with other Cohesion Countries?," MPRA Paper 5996, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. João Amador & Sónia Cabral, 2008. "International Fragmentation of Production in the Portuguese Economy: What do Different Measures Tell Us?," Working Papers w200811, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.

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