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The Relationship between Nominal Interest Rates and Inflation: New Evidence and Implication for Nigeria

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  • Awomuse, Bernard O.
  • Alimi, Santos R.

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between expected inflation and nominal interest rates in Nigeria and the extent to which the Fisher effect hypothesis holds, for the period 1970-2009. The real interest rate is obtained by subtracting the expected inflation rate from the nominal interest rate. For the Fisher hypothesis to hold, the resultant ex ante real interest rate should be stationary. Using the Johansen Cointegration Approach and Error Correction Mechanism, our findings tend to suggest: (i) the real interest rates is stationary (ii) that the nominal interest rates and expected inflation move together in the long run but not on one-to-one basis. This indicates that full Fisher hypothesis does not hold but there is a very strong Fisher effect in the case of Nigeria over the period under study (iii) that causality run strictly from expected inflation to nominal interest rates as suggested by the Fisher hypothesis and there is no “reverse causation” (iv) that only about 16 percent of the disequilibrium between long term and short term interest rate is corrected within the year. Policy implication, based on the partial Fisher effect in Nigeria, is that the level of actual inflation should become the central target variable of the monetary policy.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 49684.

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Date of creation: Aug 2012
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:49684

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Keywords: Fisher Effect; Co-integration; Error Correction Model; Nigeria;

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  1. Frank J. Atkins & Apostolos Serletis, 2003. "Bounds Tests of the Gibson Paradox and the Fisher Effect: Evidence from Low-Frequency International Data," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 71(6), pages 673-679, December.
  2. Noor Ghazali & Shamshubariah Ramlee, 2003. "A long memory test of the long-run Fisher effect in the G7 countries," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(10), pages 763-769.
  3. Taijfiq Choudhry, 1997. "Cointegration analysis of the inverted Fisher effect: evidence from Belgium, France and Germany," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(4), pages 257-260.
  4. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
  5. Koustas, Z., Serletis, A., 1998. "On the Fisher Effect," Papers 98-09, Calgary - Department of Economics.
  6. Frederic S. Mishkin & John Simon, 1995. "An Empirical Examination of the Fisher Effect in Australia," NBER Working Papers 5080, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Crowder, William J & Hoffman, Dennis L, 1996. "The Long-Run Relationship between Nominal Interest Rates and Inflation: The Fisher Equation Revisited," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(1), pages 102-18, February.
  8. Godwin Nwaobi, 2001. "A Vector Error Correction And Nonnested Modelling Of Money Demand Function In Nigeria," Econometrics 0111004, EconWPA.
  9. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501, September.
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  11. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
  12. Fahmy, Yasser A. F. & Kandil, Magda, 2003. "The Fisher effect: new evidence and implications," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 451-465.
  13. Paul Johnson, 2006. "Is it really the Fisher effect?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 201-203.
  14. Oscar Bajo-Rubio & Carmen Díaz-Roldán & Vicente Esteve, 2003. "Testing the Fisher Effect in the Presence of Structural Change: A Case Study of the UK,1961-2001," Economic Working Papers at Centro de Estudios Andaluces E2003_22, Centro de Estudios Andaluces.
  15. Jeung-Lak Lee & Carolyn Clark & Sung Ahn, 1998. "Long- and short-run Fisher effects: new tests and new results," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 113-124.
  16. K. M. Hawtrey, 1997. "The Fisher effect and Australian interest rates," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(4), pages 337-346.
  17. Garcia, Marcio G. P., 1993. "The Fisher effect in a signal extraction framework The recent Brazilian experience," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 71-93, June.
  18. Francisco Carneiro & Jose Angelo & C. A. Divino & Carlos Rocha, 2002. "Revisiting the Fisher hypothesis for the cases of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 95-98.
  19. Osterwald-Lenum, Michael, 1992. "A Note with Quantiles of the Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Cointegration Rank Test Statistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 461-72, August.
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  22. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:3:y:2002:i:4:p:1-8 is not listed on IDEAS
  23. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
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