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Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from a natural quasi-experiment in Senegal

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  • Maertens, Miet
  • Verhofstadt, Ellen
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    Abstract

    In this paper we analyse the indirect effects of the boom in horticultural exports in Senegal on child schooling. The export boom has caused a dramatic increase in female off-farm wage employment, which led to increased female bargaining power in the household. We investigate the causal effect of female wage income on primary school enrolment. We develop a collective household model with endogenous bargaining power to show that, if women have higher preferences for schooling than men, the impact of female wage income on school enrolment will be the result of a positive income effect, a negative labour substitution effect and a positive empowerment effect. We address the question empirically using original household survey data from Senegal. We use different econometric techniques and show that female off-farm wage income has a positive effect on primary school enrolment, and that the effect is larger for girls than for boys. Our results imply that the horticultural export boom in Senegal has indirectly contributed to the second and third Millennium Development Goals of universal primary education and elimination of gender disparities in primary education.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by International Association of Agricultural Economists in its series 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil with number 126856.

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    Date of creation: 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:iaae12:126856

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    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital;

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    1. Furio Camillo Rosati & Mariacristina Rossi, 2003. "Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 283-295, December.
    2. Miet Maertens, 2009. "Horticulture exports, agro-industrialization, and farm-nonfarm linkages with the smallholder farm sector: evidence from Senegal," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 219-229, 03.
    3. Paul Glewwe, 2002. "Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 436-482, June.
    4. Miet Maertens & Liesbeth Colen & Johan F. M. Swinnen, 2011. "Globalisation and poverty in Senegal: a worst case scenario?," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 38(1), pages 31-54, March.
    5. Thomas, D., 1995. "Like Father, Like Son, Like Mother, Like Daughter, Parental Resources and Child Height," Papers 95-01, RAND - Reprint Series.
    6. Gitter, Seth R. & Barham, Bradford, 2007. "Women's Power, Conditional Cash Transfers and Schooling in Nicaragua," Staff Paper Series 517, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    7. Miet Maertens & Bart Minten & Johan Swinnen, 2012. "Modern Food Supply Chains and Development: Evidence from Horticulture Export Sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 30(4), pages 473-497, 07.
    8. Basu, Kaushik & Das, Sanghamitra & Dutta, Bhaskar, 2007. "Child Labor and Household Wealth: Theory and Empirical Evidence of an Inverted-U," IZA Discussion Papers 2736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Barron, Maria Antonieta & Rello, Fernando, 2000. "The impact of the tomato agroindustry on the rural poor in Mexico," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 23(3), September.
    10. Maertens, Miet & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2007. "Trade, Standards and Poverty. Evidence from Senegal," 106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France 7924, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Lincove, Jane Arnold, 2009. "Determinants of schooling for boys and girls in Nigeria under a policy of free primary education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 474-484, August.
    12. André Portela Souza, 2007. "Child Labor, School Attendance, and Intrahousehold Gender Bias in Brazil," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 301-316, March.
    13. Tansel, Aysit, 1997. "Schooling Attainment, Parental Education, and Gender in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(4), pages 825-56, July.
    14. Iliana Reggio, 2010. "The influence of the mother's power on her child's labor in Mexico," Economics Working Papers we101305, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía.
    15. Barron, Maria Antonieta & Rello, Fernando, 2000. "The impact of the tomato agroindustry on the rural poor in Mexico," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 289-297, September.
    16. Solomon Asfaw & Dagmar Mithöfer & Hermann Waibel, 2009. "EU Food Safety Standards, Pesticide Use and Farm-level Productivity: The Case of High-value Crops in Kenya," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(3), pages 645-667.
    17. Patrick M. Emerson & Andre Portela Souza, 2002. "Bargaining over Sons and Daughters: Child Labor, School Attendance and Intra-Household Gender Bias in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0213, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
    18. Geoffrey Lancaster & Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2006. "Endogenous Intra-household Balance of Power and its Impact on Expenditure Patterns: Evidence from India," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(291), pages 435-460, 08.
    19. Miet Maertens, 2008. "Horticulture Exports, Agro-industrialization and Farm-nonfarm Linkages with the Smallholder Farm Sector: Evidence from Senegal," LICOS Discussion Papers 21408, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
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