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Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua

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  • Furio Camillo Rosati
  • Mariacristina Rossi

Abstract

Although much of the literature on child labor looks at the decision on whether to send a child to school or to work (or both), little attention has focused on the number of hours worked. This article analyzes the determinants of school attendance and hours worked by children in Pakistan and Nicaragua. A theoretical model of children's labor supply is used to simultaneously estimate the school attendance decision and the hours worked, using a full model maximum likelihood estimator. The model analyzes the marginal effects of explanatory variables, conditioning on latent states, that is, the propensity of the household to send the child to work or not. These marginal effects are in some cases rather different across latent states, with important policy implications. Copyright 2003, Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by World Bank Group in its journal The World Bank Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 17 (2003)
Issue (Month): 2 (December)
Pages: 283-295

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Handle: RePEc:oup:wbecrv:v:17:y:2003:i:2:p:283-295

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References

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  1. Christopher Heady, 2000. "What is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa00/7, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
  2. Michael Grossman, 1972. "The Demand for Health: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gros72-1, July.
  3. Grossman, Michael, 1982. "The demand for health after a decade," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 1-3, May.
  4. Cigno, Alessandro & Rosati, Furio Camillo & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 2001. "Child labor, nutrition, and education in rural India : an economic analysis of parental choice and policy options," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24081, The World Bank.
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Cited by:
  1. Veronica Amarante & Mery Ferrando & Andrea Vigorito, 2011. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Cash Transfers. An Impact Evaluation of PANES," Working Papers PIERI 2011-22, PEP-PIERI.
  2. Lee, Chanyoung & Orazem, Peter, 2008. "Lifetime Health Consequences of Child Labor in Brazil," Staff General Research Papers 12933, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  3. Maertens, Miet & Verhofstadt, Ellen, 2012. "Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from a natural quasi-experiment in Senegal," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126856, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  4. Maertens, Miet & Verhofstadt, Ellen, 2013. "Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from Senegal," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 118-131.
  5. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
  6. Rasheda Khanam & Russell Ross, 2011. "Is child work a deterrent to school attendance and school attainment?: Evidence from Bangladesh," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(8), pages 692-713, July.
  7. Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2006. "School Drop-Out and Push-Out Factors in Brazil: The Role of Early Parenthood, Child Labor, and Poverty," IZA Discussion Papers 2515, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Landmann, Andreas & Frölich, Markus, 2013. "Can Microinsurance Help Prevent Child Labor? An Impact Evaluation from Pakistan," IZA Discussion Papers 7337, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Lodhi, Abdul Salam & Tsegai, Daniel W. & Gerber, Nicolas, 2011. "Determinants of participation in child’s education and alternative activities in Pakistan," Discussion Papers 119110, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
  10. Shafiq, M. Najeeb, 2007. "Household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 946-966, December.
  11. Sedlacek, Guilherme & Duryea, Suzanne & Ilahi, Nadeem & Sasaki, Masaru, 2005. "Child labor, schooling, and poverty in Latin America," Social Protection Discussion Papers 32742, The World Bank.
  12. Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Shafiq, M. Najeeb, 2008. "A positive stigma for child labor ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4697, The World Bank.
  13. Maldonado, Jorge H. & González-Vega, Claudio, 2008. "Impact of Microfinance on Schooling: Evidence from Poor Rural Households in Bolivia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2440-2455, November.
  14. Tharmmapornphilas, Rubkwan, 2013. "Impact of household factors on youth's school decisions in Thailand," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 258-272.
  15. Hamna Ahmed, 2012. "The Impact of Public School Enrolment on Child Labor in Punjab, Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 17(2), pages 1-34, July-Dec.
  16. Maertens, Miet & Verhofstadt, Ellen, 2012. "Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from Senegal," Working Papers 146519, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  17. Amin, Shahina & Quayes, Shakil & Rives, Janet M., 2006. "Market work and household work as deterrents to schooling in Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1271-1286, July.
  18. Khanam, Rasheda & Ross, Russell, 2005. "Impact of Child Labour on School Attendance and School Attainment: Evidence from Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 9397, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2008.
  19. Bezerra, Márcio Eduardo G. & Kassouf, Ana Lucia & Arends-Kuenning, Mary P., 2009. "The Impact of Child Labor and School Quality on Academic Achievement in Brazil," IZA Discussion Papers 4062, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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