Women's Power, Conditional Cash Transfers and Schooling in Nicaragua
AbstractThe Red de Proteccion Social (RPS) in Nicaragua is one of a growing number of conditional cash transfer programs that pay households cash stipends in exchange for school attendance and regular visits to health clinics. A key feature of these programs is that the cash is given to the woman head of household. The rationale stems from previous research in the developing world that transfers to women are more likely to be spent on health, nutrition, and education of children and thus to reinforce the goals of these programs. One concern is that less powerful women may not be as impacted by program funds, because males in those household will decrease their contributions in response to the transfers. Utilizing randomized experimental data from RPS, we test for heterogeneous program impacts on school enrollment and spending based on a woman's power as proxied by her education relative to her husband . Our results confirm previous findings that generally more household resources are devoted toward children when women are more powerful; however, when women's power greatly exceeds her husband's additional female power lowers school enrollment., Additionally we find that RPS' impacts on schooling are substantially larger than expected income effects estimated from the control group, although we do not find evidence that female power alters RPS impacts on school enrollment. In terms of spending effects, RPS increased food and education expenditures in all households, yet this impact is attributable mostly to income effects. Finally, we find RPS had non-income impacts on milk expenditures particularly for less powerful women.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics in its series Staff Paper Series with number 517.
Date of creation: Dec 2007
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Seth R. Gitter & Bradford L. Barham, 2008. "Women's Power, Conditional Cash Transfers, and Schooling in Nicaragua," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(2), pages 271-290, May.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Binder, Melissa, 1999. "Schooling indicators during Mexico's "Lost decade"," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 183-199, April.
- FranÁois Bourguignon & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Phillippe G. Leite, 2003. "Conditional Cash Transfers, Schooling, and Child Labor: Micro-Simulating Brazil's Bolsa Escola Program," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 229-254, December.
- de Janvry, Alain & Finan, Frederico & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & Vakis, Renos, 2004.
"Can conditional cash transfers serve as safety nets to keep children at school and out of the labor market?,"
CUDARE Working Paper Series
0999, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- de Janvry, Alain & Finan, Frederico & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2004. "Can Conditional Cash Transfers Serve as Safety Nets to Keep Children at School and Out of the Labor Market?," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt5fp0g5p2, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Duncan Thomas, 1990.
"Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
- Thomas, D., 1989. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Papers 586, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Duncan Thomas, 1994.
"Like Father, like Son; Like Mother, like Daughter: Parental Resources and Child Height,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 950-988.
- Thomas, D., 1995. "Like Father, Like Son, Like Mother, Like Daughter, Parental Resources and Child Height," Papers 95-01, RAND - Reprint Series.
- Hoddinott, John & Skoufias, Emmanual, 2003.
"The impact of Progresa on food consumption,"
150, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Maluccio, John A. & Flores, Rafael, 2004.
"Impact evaluation of a conditional cash transfer program,"
FCND discussion papers
184, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Maluccio, John A. & Flores, Rafael, 2004. "Impact evaluation of a conditional cash transfer program," FCND briefs 184, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Doss, Cheryl R., 1996. "Testing among models of intrahousehold resource allocation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(10), pages 1597-1609, October.
- Kaushik Basu, 2004.
"Gender and Say A Model of Household Behavior with Endogenously-determined Balance of Power,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
2054, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Kaushik Basu, 2006. "Gender and Say: a Model of Household Behaviour with Endogenously Determined Balance of Power," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(511), pages 558-580, 04.
- Basu, Kaushik, 2001. "Gender and Say: A Model of Household Behavior with Endogenously-Determined Balance of Power," Working Papers 01-01, Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics.
- Chiappori, Pierre-Andre, 1992.
"Collective Labor Supply and Welfare,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(3), pages 437-67, June.
- Geoffrey Lancaster & Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2006. "Endogenous Intra-household Balance of Power and its Impact on Expenditure Patterns: Evidence from India," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(291), pages 435-460, 08.
- Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
- Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1.
- T. Paul Schultz, 1990.
"Testing the Neoclassical Model of Family Labor Supply and Fertility,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 599-634.
- Schultz, T.P., 1990. "Testing The Neoclassical Model Of Family Labor Supply And Fertility," Papers 601, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- André Portela Souza, 2007. "Child Labor, School Attendance, and Intrahousehold Gender Bias in Brazil," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 301-316, March.
- Iyigun, Murat & Walsh, Randall P., 2007. "Endogenous gender power, household labor supply and the demographic transition," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 138-155, January.
- Alderman, Harold & King, Elizabeth M., 1998. "Gender differences in parental investment in education," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 453-468, December.
- Maluccio, John A., 2005. "Coping with the “coffee crisis” in Central America: The Role of the Nicaraguan Red de Protección Social," FCND discussion papers 188, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Laura B. Rawlings, 2005. "Evaluating the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 20(1), pages 29-55.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.