Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from Senegal

Contents:

Author Info

  • Maertens, Miet
  • Verhofstadt, Ellen
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    In this paper we analyse the indirect effects of the boom in horticultural exports in Senegal on child schooling. The export boom has caused a dramatic increase in female off-farm wage employment, which led to increased female bargaining power in the household. We investigate the causal effect of female wage income on primary school enrolment. We develop a collective household model with endogenous bargaining power to show that, if women have higher preferences for schooling than men, the impact of female wage income on school enrolment will be the result of a positive income effect, a negative labour substitution effect and a positive empowerment effect. We address the question empirically using original household survey data from Senegal. We use different econometric techniques and show that female off-farm wage income has a positive effect on primary school enrolment for both boys and girls, and that female empowerment is specifically important for the schooling of girls. Our results imply that the horticultural export boom in Senegal has indirectly contributed to the second and third Millennium Development Goals of universal primary education and elimination of gender disparities in primary education.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919213001036
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Food Policy.

    Volume (Year): 43 (2013)
    Issue (Month): C ()
    Pages: 118-131

    as in new window
    Handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:43:y:2013:i:c:p:118-131

    Contact details of provider:
    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/foodpol

    Related research

    Keywords: Globalisation; Female labour market participation; Female empowerment; Collective household model; Primary school enrolment; Gender disparity in schooling;

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Tansel, Aysit, 1997. "Schooling Attainment, Parental Education, and Gender in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(4), pages 825-56, July.
    2. Barrientos, Stephanie & Dolan, Catherine & Tallontire, Anne, 2003. "A Gendered Value Chain Approach to Codes of Conduct in African Horticulture," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 1511-1526, September.
    3. Reggio, Iliana, 2011. "The influence of the mother's power on her child's labor in Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 95-105, September.
    4. Kaushik Basu, 2004. "Gender and Say A Model of Household Behavior with Endogenously-determined Balance of Power," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2054, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    5. Minten, Bart & Randrianarison, Lalaina & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Global Retail Chains and Poor Farmers: Evidence from Madagascar," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1728-1741, November.
    6. Lincove, Jane Arnold, 2009. "Determinants of schooling for boys and girls in Nigeria under a policy of free primary education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 474-484, August.
    7. Miet Maertens & Liesbeth Colen & Johan F. M. Swinnen, 2011. "Globalisation and poverty in Senegal: a worst case scenario?," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 38(1), pages 31-54, March.
    8. Cheryl R. Doss & John G. McPeak, 2005. "Are Household Production Decisions Cooperative? Evidence on Pastoral Migration and Milk Sales from Northern Kenya," Working Papers 906, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    9. Solomon Asfaw & Dagmar Mithöfer & Hermann Waibel, 2009. "EU Food Safety Standards, Pesticide Use and Farm-level Productivity: The Case of High-value Crops in Kenya," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(3), pages 645-667.
    10. Colen, Liesbeth & Maertens, Miet, 2011. "Private Standards and Employment Insecurity: GlobalGAP in the Senegalese Horticulture Export Sector," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114286, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Duncan Thomas, 1994. "Like Father, like Son; Like Mother, like Daughter: Parental Resources and Child Height," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 950-988.
    12. Furio Camillo Rosati & Mariacristina Rossi, 2003. "Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 283-295, December.
    13. Gustavo J. Bobonis, 2009. "Is the Allocation of Resources within the Household Efficient? New Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 117(3), pages 453-503, 06.
    14. Miet Maertens & Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2006. "Trade, Standards, and Poverty: Evidence from Senegal," LICOS Discussion Papers 17706, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    15. Barron, Maria Antonieta & Rello, Fernando, 2000. "The impact of the tomato agroindustry on the rural poor in Mexico," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 289-297, September.
    16. Bennell, Paul, 2002. "Hitting the Target: Doubling Primary School Enrollments in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2015," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1179-1194, July.
    17. M. Browning & P. A. Chiappori, 1998. "Efficient Intra-Household Allocations: A General Characterization and Empirical Tests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(6), pages 1241-1278, November.
    18. Gitter, Seth R. & Barham, Bradford, 2007. "Women's Power, Conditional Cash Transfers and Schooling in Nicaragua," Staff Paper Series 517, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    19. Miet Maertens & Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2012. "Gender and Modern Supply Chains in Developing Countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(10), pages 1412-1430, October.
    20. Behrman, Jere R & Knowles, James C, 1999. "Household Income and Child Schooling in Vietnam," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 211-56, May.
    21. Miet Maertens & Bart Minten & Johan Swinnen, 2012. "Modern Food Supply Chains and Development: Evidence from Horticulture Export Sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 30(4), pages 473-497, 07.
    22. Parikh, Anokhi & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2005. "The Effect of Parents' Occupation on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt49g4z7mx, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
    23. Basu, Kaushik & Das, Sanghamitra & Dutta, Bhaskar, 2007. "Child Labor and Household Wealth: Theory and Empirical Evidence of an Inverted-U," IZA Discussion Papers 2736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    24. Nava Ashraf, 2009. "Spousal Control and Intra-household Decision Making: An Experimental Study in the Philippines," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(4), pages 1245-77, September.
    25. Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
    26. World Bank, 2010. "World Development Indicators 2010," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 4373, July.
    27. Markus Goldstein & Christopher Udry, 2008. "The Profits of Power: Land Rights and Agricultural Investment in Ghana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(6), pages 981-1022, December.
    28. Stephanie Barrientos & Andrienetta Kritzinger, 2004. "Squaring the circle: global production and the informalization of work in South African fruit exports," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 81-92.
    29. Senakpon F. A. Dedehouanou & Johan Swinnen & Miet Maertens, 2013. "Does Contracting Make Farmers Happy? Evidence from Senegal," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 59, pages S138-S160, October.
    30. Geoffrey Lancaster & Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2006. "Endogenous Intra-household Balance of Power and its Impact on Expenditure Patterns: Evidence from India," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(291), pages 435-460, 08.
    31. Barron, Maria Antonieta & Rello, Fernando, 2000. "The impact of the tomato agroindustry on the rural poor in Mexico," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 23(3), September.
    32. Zhao, Meng & Glewwe, Paul, 2010. "What determines basic school attainment in developing countries? Evidence from rural China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 451-460, June.
    33. André Portela Souza, 2007. "Child Labor, School Attendance, and Intrahousehold Gender Bias in Brazil," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 301-316, March.
    34. C. Dolan & J. Humphrey, 2000. "Governance and Trade in Fresh Vegetables: The Impact of UK Supermarkets on the African Horticulture Industry," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 147-176.
    35. Miet Maertens, 2009. "Horticulture exports, agro-industrialization, and farm-nonfarm linkages with the smallholder farm sector: evidence from Senegal," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 219-229, 03.
    36. Bart Minten & Lalaina Randrianarison & Johan Swinnen, 2007. "Spillovers from high-value agriculture for exports on land use in developing countries: evidence from Madagascar," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 37(2-3), pages 265-275, 09.
    37. Zhang, Linxiu & de Brauw, Alan & Rozelle, Scott, 2004. "China's rural labor market development and its gender implications," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 230-247.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:43:y:2013:i:c:p:118-131. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.