Stochastic convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions and multiple structural breaks in OECD countries
AbstractThis research applies an innovative panel data stationarity testing procedure developed by Carrion-i-Silvestre et al. [Carrion-i-Silvestre, J.L., Barrio-Castro, T.D. and Lopez-Bazo, E., 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to the GDP per capita, Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175.], which has the advantage of recognizing multiple structural breaks and the presence of cross-section dependence in order to re-investigate the hypothesis that per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions stochastically converge for 21 OECD countries from 1950 to 2002. Remarkably, the evidence clearly indicates that the panel dataset of relative per capita CO2 emissions is stationary after the structural breaks and cross-sectional dependence are introduced into the model. These findings offer strong policy implications for governments, regardless of whether they are in "convergent group" or "divergent group" countries. We also find that the structural breaks in the 1960s and over the 1970-1982 period are associated with time periods of fossil fuel becoming the main source of productivity, higher oil prices, and the development of nuclear power.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Economic Modelling.
Volume (Year): 26 (2009)
Issue (Month): 6 (November)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/30411
Per capita CO2 emissions Stochastic convergence Multiple structural breaks Panel data stationarity test OECD countries;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- Per - Economic Systems - - - - -
- cap - - - - - -
- CO2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - - - -
- emi - - - - - -
- Sto - - - - - -
- con - - - - - -
- Mul - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - - - -
- str - - - - - -
- bre - - - - - -
- Pan - Economic Systems - - - - -
- dat - - - - - -
- sta - - - - - -
- tes - - - - - -
- OEC - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - - - -
- cou - - - - - -
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chien-Chiang Lee & Chun-Ping Chang & Pei-Fen Chen, 2008. "Do CO2 emission levels converge among 21 OECD countries? New evidence from unit root structural break tests," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(7), pages 551-556.
- Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002.
"Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
- Tom Doan, . "LEVINLIN: RATS procedure to perform Levin-Lin-Chu test for unit roots in panel data," Statistical Software Components RTS00242, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Chang, Chun-Ping & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2008. "Are per capita carbon dioxide emissions converging among industrialized countries? New time series evidence with structural breaks," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(04), pages 497-515, August.
- Danny Quah, 1992.
"Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth,"
Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics
75, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Quah, Danny, 1993. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 426-434, April.
- Danny Quah, 1992. "Empirical Cross-Section Dynamics in Economic Growth," FMG Discussion Papers dp154, Financial Markets Group.
- Joakim Westerlund & Syed Basher, 2008.
"Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 109-120, May.
- Westerlund, Joakim & Basher, Syed A., 2007. "Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data," MPRA Paper 3262, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Perron, P, 1988.
"The Great Crash, The Oil Price Shock And The Unit Root Hypothesis,"
338, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
- Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
- Syed A. Basher & Josep Lluis Carrión-i-Silvestre, 2008. "Deconstructing Shocks and Persistence in OECD Real Exchange Rates," Working Papers XREAP2008-06, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Jun 2008.
- Unruh, G. C. & Moomaw, W. R., 1998. "An alternative analysis of apparent EKC-type transitions," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 221-229, May.
- Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003.
"Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
- Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Tom Doan, . "IPSHIN: RATS procedure to implement Im, Pesaran and Shin panel unit root test," Statistical Software Components RTS00098, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-52, Special I.
- Josep Llu�s Carrion-i-Silvestre & Tom�s del Barrio-Castro & Enrique L�pez-Bazo, 2005.
"Breaking the panels: An application to the GDP per capita,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 8(2), pages 159-175, 07.
- Josep Lluis Carrion Silvestre & Tomas del Barrio Castro & Enrique Lopez Bazo, 2003. "Breaking the panels. An application to the GDP per capita," Working Papers in Economics 97, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
- Camarero, M. & Esteve, V. & Tamarit, C., 1996.
"Price Convergence of Periphical European Countries on the Way to the EMU: A Time Series Approach,"
Weiss Center Working Papers
96-2, Wharton School - Weiss Center for International Financial Research.
- Miriam Camarero & Vicente Esteve & Cecilio Tamarit, 2000. "Price convergence of peripheral European countries on the way to the EMU: A time series approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 149-168.
- Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich, 2003. "Minimum Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Test with Two Structural Breaks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1082-1089, November.
- Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, .
"Some Cautions on the Use of Panel Methods for Integrated Series of Macro-Economic Data,"
170, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, 2004. "Some cautions on the use of panel methods for integrated series of macroeconomic data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(2), pages 322-340, December.
- Banerjee, A. & Marcellino, M. & Osbat, C., 2000. "Some Cautions on the Use of Panel Methods for Integrated Series of Macro-economic Data," Economics Working Papers eco2000/20, European University Institute.
- Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992.
"Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991.
"Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
- Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Tom Doan, . "KPSS: RATS procedure to perform KPSS (Kwiatowski, Phillips, Schmidt, and Shin) stationarity test," Statistical Software Components RTS00100, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Donggyu Sul & Peter C.B. Phillips & Choi, Chi-Young, 2003.
"Prewhitening Bias in HAC Estimation,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
1436, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Perron, Pierre & Vogelsang, Timothy J, 1992. "Testing for a Unit Root in a Time Series with a Changing Mean: Corrections and Extensions," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(4), pages 467-70, October.
- Joseph E. Aldy, 2007.
"Divergence in State-Level Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions,"
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(3), pages 353-369.
- Aldy, Joseph, 2006. "Divergence in State-Level Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Discussion Papers dp-06-07, Resources For the Future.
- Aldy, Joseph, 2005.
"Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?,"
dp-05-53, Resources For the Future.
- Joseph Aldy, 2006. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 33(4), pages 533-555, 04.
- Kaddour Hadri, 1999.
"Testing For Stationarity In Heterogeneous Panel Data,"
1999_04, University of Liverpool Management School.
- Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
- Dolado, Juan J & Jenkinson, Tim & Sosvilla-Rivero, Simon, 1990. " Cointegration and Unit Roots," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 249-73.
- Carlino, Gerald A. & Mills, Leonard O., 1993. "Are U.S. regional incomes converging? : A time series analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 335-346, November.
- Perron, P. & Bai, J., 1995.
"Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes,"
Cahiers de recherche
9552, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
- Perron, P. & Bai, J., 1995. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Cahiers de recherche 9552, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Montanes, Antonio & Olloqui, Irene & Calvo, Elena, 2005. "Selection of the break in the Perron-type tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 129(1-2), pages 41-64.
- Erwin Bulte & John A. List & Mark C. Strazicich, 2004.
"Regulatory Federalism and the Distribution of Air Pollutant Emissions,"
04-16, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
- Erwin Bulte & John A. List & Mark C. Strazicich, 2007. "Regulatory Federalism And The Distribution Of Air Pollutant Emissions," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 155-178.
- Lindmark, Magnus, 2004. "Patterns of historical CO2 intensity transitions among high and low-income countries," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 426-447, October.
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar, 2008. "Evidence of panel stationarity from Chinese provincial and regional income," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 274-286, June.
- Mark Strazicich & John List, 2003. "Are CO 2 Emission Levels Converging Among Industrial Countries?," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 24(3), pages 263-271, March.
- Phu Nguyen Van, 2005. "Distribution Dynamics of CO2 Emissions," THEMA Working Papers 2005-10, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
- Kyung-So Im & Junsoo Lee & Margie Tieslau, 2005. "Panel LM Unit-root Tests with Level Shifts," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 67(3), pages 393-419, 06.
- John A. List, 1999. "Have Air Pollutant Emissions Converged Among U.S. Regions? Evidence from Unit Root Tests," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(1), pages 144-155, July.
- Li, Xuehui & Lin, Boqiang, 2013. "Global convergence in per capita CO2 emissions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 357-363.
- Lin, Boqiang & Li, Xuehui, 2011. "The effect of carbon tax on per capita CO2 emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5137-5146, September.
- Chang, Chun Ping & Berdiev, Aziz N., 2011. "The political economy of energy regulation in OECD countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 816-825, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.