Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Returns from income strategies in rural Poland

Contents:

Author Info

  • Jan Fałkowski
  • Maciej Jakubowski
  • Paweł Strawiński

Abstract

In order to stabilise and improve their income situation, rural households are strongly encouraged to diversify their activities both within and outside the agricultural sector. Often, however, this advice is only moderately pursued. This paper addresses issues of rural household income diversification in the case of Poland. It investigates returns from rural household income strategies using propensity score matching methods and extensive datasets spanning 1998-2008. Results suggest that returns from combining farm and off-farm activities were lower than returns from concentrating on farming or on self-employment outside agriculture. This differential is stable over time although returns from diversification have relatively improved after Poland’s accession to the EU. This is also visible in the fact that since 2006 returns from combining farm and off-farm activities have evened with returns from relying solely on hired off-farm labour, thus smoothing the difference observed before the accession. Further, over the analysed period, households pursuing the diversification strategy performed better than those relying solely on unearned income. Finally, in general, the income in households combining farm and off-farm activities was higher than in those combining two off-farm income sources.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/ecot.12032
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in its journal Economics of Transition.

Volume (Year): 22 (2014)
Issue (Month): 1 (01)
Pages: 139-178

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:bla:etrans:v:22:y:2014:i:1:p:139-178

Contact details of provider:
Postal: One Exchange Square, London EC2A 2JN
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0967-0750
More information through EDIRC

Order Information:
Web: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/subs.asp?ref=0967-0750

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Seeth, Harm Tho & Chachnov, Sergei & Surinov, Alexander & Von Braun, Joachim, 1998. "Russian poverty: Muddling through economic transition with garden plots," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(9), pages 1611-1624, September.
  2. Luka Juvančič & Emil Erjavec, 2005. "Intertemporal analysis of employment decisions on agricultural holdings in Slovenia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(2), pages 153-161, 09.
  3. Möllers Judith & Fritzsch Jana & Buchenrieder Gertrud, 2008. "Farm and Non-farm Incomes of Rural Households in Slovenia Canonical Correlation Analysis," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, De Gruyter Open, vol. 3(2), pages 39-48, November.
  4. Dries, Liesbeth & Swinnen, Johan F. M., 2002. "Institutional Reform and Labor Reallocation During Transition: Theory Evidence From Polish Agriculture," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 457-474, March.
  5. Blundell, Richard & Costa Dias, Monica, 2008. "Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics," IZA Discussion Papers 3800, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
  7. Jolliffe, Dean, 2004. "The impact of education in rural Ghana: examining household labor allocation and returns on and off the farm," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 287-314, February.
  8. Reardon, Thomas, 1997. "Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 735-747, May.
  9. Ayal Kimhi, 2004. "Family Composition and Off-Farm Participation Decisions in Israeli Farm Households," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(2), pages 502-512.
  10. Tokle, J. G. & Huffman, Wallace, 1991. "Local Economic Conditions and Wage Labor Decisions of Farm and Rural Nonfarm Couples," Staff General Research Papers 10988, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  11. Arne Henningsen, 2009. "Why is the Polish farm sector still so underdeveloped?," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 47-64.
  12. Janet Dwyer & Jill Findeis, 2008. "Human and Social Capital in Rural Development - EU and US Perspectives," EuroChoices, The Agricultural Economics Society, vol. 7(Special I), pages 38-45, 04.
  13. Narayan, Deepa & Pritchett, Lant, 1999. "Cents and Sociability: Household Income and Social Capital in Rural Tanzania," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(4), pages 871-97, July.
  14. Alberto Abadie & Guido W. Imbens, 2006. "On the Failure of the Bootstrap for Matching Estimators," NBER Technical Working Papers 0325, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Deininger, Klaus & Olinto, Pedro, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Employment and Income Diversification in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 455-465, March.
  16. Barry K. Goodwin & Matthew T. Holt, 2002. "Parametric and Semiparametric Modeling of the Off-Farm Labor Supply of Agrarian Households in Transition Bulgaria," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(1), pages 184-209.
  17. Euan Phimister & Deborah Roberts & Alana Gilbert, 2004. "The Dynamics of Farm Incomes: Panel data analysis using the Farm Accounts Survey," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(2), pages 197-220.
  18. Deininger, Klaus & Feder, Gershon, 2001. "Land institutions and land markets," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, in: B. L. Gardner & G. C. Rausser (ed.), Handbook of Agricultural Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 288-331 Elsevier.
  19. Chaplin, Hannah & Davidova, Sophia & Gorton, Matthew, 2003. "Agricultural Adjustment And The Diversification Of Farm Households In Central Europe," 2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa 25843, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  20. Hannah Chaplin & Sophia Davidova & Matthew Gorton, 2005. "Impediments to Employment and Enterprise Diversification: evidence from small-scale farms in Poland," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp102, IIIS.
  21. Swinnen, Johan F.M. & Dries, Liesbeth & Macours, Karen, 2001. "Transition And Agricultural Labour," 2001 Annual meeting, August 5-8, Chicago, IL 20602, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  22. J. Edward Taylor & Scott Rozelle & Alan deBrauw, 1999. "Migration, Remittances, and Agricultural Productivity in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 287-291, May.
  23. Marco Caliendo & Sabine Kopeinig, 2008. "Some Practical Guidance For The Implementation Of Propensity Score Matching," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 31-72, 02.
  24. Brada, Josef C, 1989. "Technological Progress and Factor Utilization in Eastern European Economic Growth," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 56(224), pages 433-48, November.
  25. Avner Ahituv & Ayal Kimhi, 2006. "Simultaneous estimation of work choices and the level of farm activity using panel data," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 49-71, March.
  26. Lerman, Zvi & Csaki, Csaba & Feder, Gershon, 2002. "Land policies and evolving farm structures in transition countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2794, The World Bank.
  27. Knack, Stephen & Keefer, Philip, 1997. "Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(4), pages 1251-88, November.
  28. Thomas Reardon & J. Edward Taylor & Kostas Stamoulis & Peter Lanjouw & Arsenio Balisacan, 2000. "Effects of Non-Farm Employment on Rural Income Inequality in Developing Countries: An Investment Perspective," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 266-288.
  29. Huffman, Wallace, 1980. "Farm and Off-Farm Work Decisions: The Role of Human Capital," Staff General Research Papers 10973, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  30. Paul Winters & Timothy Essam & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zezza & Calogero Carletto & Kostas Stamoulis, 2008. "Patterns of Rural Development: A Cross-Country Comparison Using Microeconomic Data," Working Papers 08-06, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
  31. Samuelson, Paul A., 1967. "General Proof that Diversification Pays," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(01), pages 1-13, March.
  32. Ayal Kimhi, 1996. "Demographic composition of farm households and its effect on time allocation," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 429-439.
  33. Hazell, Peter B. & Haggblade, Steven, 1990. "Rural - urban growth linkages in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 430, The World Bank.
  34. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
  35. Zvi Lerman & Pepijn Schreinemachers, 2005. "Individual Farming as a Labour Sink: Evidence from Poland and Russia," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 47(4), pages 675-695, December.
  36. Lanjouw, Jean O. & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001. "The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 26(1), pages 1-23, October.
  37. Reardon, Thomas & Berdegue, Julio & Escobar, German, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Employment and Incomes in Latin America: Overview and Policy Implications," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 395-409, March.
  38. Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, Peter & Reardon, Thomas, 2010. "The Rural Non-farm Economy: Prospects for Growth and Poverty Reduction," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1429-1441, October.
  39. Karen Macours & Johan F. M. Swinnen, 2005. "Agricultural Labor Adjustments in Transition Countries: The Role of Migration and Impact on Poverty ," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 27(3), pages 405-411.
  40. Ayal Kimhi, 2000. "Is Part-Time Farming Really a Step in the Way Out of Agricultural?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(1), pages 38-48.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Janda, Karel & Strielkowski, Wadim & Rausser, Gordon, 2013. "Determinants of profitability of Polish rural micro-enterprises," MPRA Paper 52771, University Library of Munich, Germany.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:etrans:v:22:y:2014:i:1:p:139-178. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.