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Assessing gender gaps in employment and earnings in Africa: the case of Eswatini

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  • Brixiová Schwidrowski, Zuzana
  • Imai, Susumu
  • Kangoye, Thierry
  • Yameogo, Nadege Desiree

Abstract

Persistent gender gaps characterize labor markets in many African countries. Utilizing Eswatini's first three labor market surveys (conducted in 2007, 2010, and 2013), this paper provides first systematic evidence on the country's gender gaps in employment and earnings. We find that women have notably lower employment rates and earnings than men, even though the global financial crisis had a less negative impact on women than it had on men. Both unadjusted and unexplained gender earnings gaps are higher in self-employment than in wage employment. Tertiary education and urban location account for a large part of the gender earnings gap and mitigate high female propensity to self-employment. Our findings suggest that policies supporting female higher education and rural-urban mobility could reduce persistent inequalities in Eswatini's labor market outcomes as well as in other middle-income countries in southern Africa.

Suggested Citation

  • Brixiová Schwidrowski, Zuzana & Imai, Susumu & Kangoye, Thierry & Yameogo, Nadege Desiree, 2021. "Assessing gender gaps in employment and earnings in Africa: the case of Eswatini," GLO Discussion Paper Series 834, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:834
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender; employment; income; multivariate analysis; policies;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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