IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp14350.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Assessing Gender Gaps in Employment and Earnings in Africa: The Case of Eswatini

Author

Listed:
  • Brixiova, Zuzana

    (UNECA)

  • Imai, Susumu

    (University of Technology, Sydney)

  • Kangoye, Thierry

    (African Development Bank)

  • Yameogo, Nadege Desiree

    (World Bank)

Abstract

Persistent gender gaps characterize labor markets in many African countries. Utilizing Eswatini's first three labor market surveys (conducted in 2007, 2010, and 2013), this paper provides first systematic evidence on the country's gender gaps in employment and earnings. We find that women have notably lower employment rates and earnings than men, even though the global financial crisis had a less negative impact on women than it had on men. Both unadjusted and unexplained gender earnings gaps are higher in self-employment than in wage employment. Tertiary education and urban location account for a large part of the gender earnings gap and mitigate high female propensity to self-employment. Our findings suggest that policies supporting female higher education and rural-urban mobility could reduce persistent inequalities in Eswatini's labor market outcomes as well as in other middle-income countries in southern Africa.

Suggested Citation

  • Brixiova, Zuzana & Imai, Susumu & Kangoye, Thierry & Yameogo, Nadege Desiree, 2021. "Assessing Gender Gaps in Employment and Earnings in Africa: The Case of Eswatini," IZA Discussion Papers 14350, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14350
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://docs.iza.org/dp14350.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Azizi, SeyedSoroosh, 2018. "The impacts of workers' remittances on human capital and labor supply in developing countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 377-396.
    3. Cox-Edwards, Alejandra & Rodríguez-Oreggia, Eduardo, 2009. "Remittances and Labor Force Participation in Mexico: An Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1004-1014, May.
    4. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, October.
    5. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    6. Ms. Dalia S Hakura & Mr. Mumtaz Hussain & Ms. Monique Newiak & Mr. Vimal V Thakoor & Mr. Fan Yang, 2016. "Inequality, Gender Gaps and Economic Growth: Comparative Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 2016/111, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Amin, Mohammad & Kuntchev, Veselin & Schmidt, Martin, 2015. "Gender inequality and growth: the case of rich vs. poor countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7172, The World Bank.
    8. Ms. Janet Gale Stotsky, 2006. "Gender and its Relevance to Macroeconomic Policy: A Survey," IMF Working Papers 2006/233, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Mr. Jonathan David Ostry & Mr. Jorge A Alvarez & Mr. Raphael A Espinoza & Mr. Chris Papageorgiou, 2018. "Economic Gains From Gender Inclusion: New Mechanisms, New Evidence," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 2018/006, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Stephan Klasen, 2002. "Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(3), pages 345-373, December.
    11. Esther Duflo, 2012. "Women Empowerment and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1051-1079, December.
    12. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling and Earnings," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 41-63, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Jonathan David Ostry & Jorge Alvarez & Raphael A Espinoza & Chris Papageorgiou, 2018. "Economic Gains From Gender Inclusion; New Mechanisms, New Evidence," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 18/06, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Ms. Christine Dieterich & Anni Huang & Mr. Alun H. Thomas, 2016. "Women’s Opportunities and Challenges in Sub-Saharan African Job Markets," IMF Working Papers 2016/118, International Monetary Fund.
    15. Christina Boll & Andreas Lagemann, 2019. "The Gender Pay Gap in EU Countries — New Evidence Based on EU-SES 2014 Data," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer;ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics;Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), vol. 54(2), pages 101-105, March.
    16. Ben Jann, 2008. "The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition for linear regression models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 8(4), pages 453-479, December.
    17. Michele Ruiters & Ailie Charteris, 2020. "Gender equality in labour force participation, economic growth and development in South Africa," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(6), pages 997-1011, November.
    18. Ina GANGULI & Ricardo HAUSMANN & Martina VIARENGO, 2014. "Closing the gender gap in education: What is the state of gaps in labour force participation for women, wives and mothers?," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 153(2), pages 173-207, June.
    19. Schober, Thomas & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2011. "Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Puzzle?--A Comment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1476-1484, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Anda DAVID & Gibson MUDIRIZA & Joanna GROTTE & Ariane DE LANNOY & Murray LEIBBRANDT, 2023. "Developing a Youth Labour Market Index for South Africa at the sub-national level," Working Paper ba3e7ae3-f112-470b-baa9-9, Agence française de développement.
    2. Chris Desmond & Kathryn Watt & Sara Naicker & Jere Behrman & Linda Richter, 2024. "Girls' schooling is important but insufficient to promote equality for boys and girls in childhood and across the life course," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 42(1), January.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Jacqueline Mosomi, 2019. "Distributional changes in the gender wage gap in the post-apartheid South African labour market," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2019-17, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Domenico Depalo & Raffaela Giordano & Evangelia Papapetrou, 2015. "Public–private wage differentials in euro-area countries: evidence from quantile decomposition analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 49(3), pages 985-1015, November.
    3. Arceo-Gómez, Eva O. & Campos-Vázquez, Raymundo M., 2014. "Evolución de la brecha salarial de género en México," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(323), pages .619-653, julio-sep.
    4. Saule Kemelbayeva, 2020. "Returns to schooling in Kazakhstan: an update using a pseudo-panel approach," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 10(3), pages 437-487, September.
    5. Mustafizur Rahman & Marzuka Md. Al-Hasan, 2019. "Women in Bangladesh Labour Market: Determinants of Participation, Gender Wage Gap and Returns to Schooling," CPD Working Paper 124, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD).
    6. Romina Kazandjian & Ms. Lisa L Kolovich & Ms. Kalpana Kochhar & Ms. Monique Newiak, 2016. "Gender Equality and Economic Diversification," IMF Working Papers 2016/140, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Elisa R. Birch & Alison C. Preston, 2021. "The Evolving Wage Structure of Young Adults in Australia: 2001 to 2019," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 97(318), pages 365-386, September.
    8. Boris Kaiser, 2016. "Decomposing differences in arithmetic means: a doubly robust estimation approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 50(3), pages 873-899, May.
    9. Niels-Hugo Blunch & Nabanita Datta Gupta, 2014. "Social Networks and Health Knowledge in India: Who You Know or Who You Are?," Economics Working Papers 2014-24, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    10. Petreski, Marjan. & Mojsoska-Blazevski, Nikica., 2015. "The gender and motherhood wage gap in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : an econometric analysis," ILO Working Papers 994895293402676, International Labour Organization.
    11. Guarini, Giulio & Laureti, Tiziana & Garofalo, Giuseppe, 2018. "Territorial and individual educational inequality: A Capability Approach analysis for Italy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 247-262.
    12. Avinno Faruk, 2021. "Analysing the glass ceiling and sticky floor effects in Bangladesh: evidence, extent and elements," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 1(9), pages 1-23, September.
    13. Gomes, Magno Rogério & Souza, Solange de Cássia Inforzato de & Mantovani, Gabriela Gomes & Paiva, Vanessa Fortunato de, 2020. "Wage gap decomposition models: A methodological contribution," Brazilian Review of Econometrics, Sociedade Brasileira de Econometria - SBE, vol. 39(2), March.
    14. repec:zbw:rwirep:0057 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Aleksandra Anić & Gorana Krstić, 2019. "What Lies Behind The Gender Wage Gap In Serbia?," Economic Annals, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Belgrade, vol. 64(223), pages 137-170, October –.
    16. Zhang, Li & Sharpe, Rhonda Vonshay & Li, Shi & Darity, William A., 2016. "Wage differentials between urban and rural-urban migrant workers in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 222-233.
    17. Niels-Hugo Blunch, 2018. "Just like a woman? New comparative evidence on the gender income gap across Eastern Europe and Central Asia," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 8(1), pages 1-41, December.
    18. Somasree Poddar & Ishita Mukhopadhyay, 2019. "Gender Wage Gap: Some Recent Evidences from India," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 17(1), pages 121-151, March.
    19. Stefani Schurer, 2008. "Labour Market Outcomes of Second Generation Immigrants: How Heterogeneous Are They Really?," Ruhr Economic Papers 0057, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    20. Busch, Anne & Holst, Elke, 2013. "Geschlechtsspezifische Verdienstunterschiede bei Führungskräften und sonstigen Angestellten in Deutschland: Welche Relevanz hat der Frauenanteil im Beruf?," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 315-336.
    21. Schurer, Stefanie, 2008. "Labour Market Outcomes of Second Generation Immigrants: How Heterogeneous Are They Really?," Ruhr Economic Papers 57, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender; employment; income; multivariate analysis; policies;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14350. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Holger Hinte (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/izaaade.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.