Occurrence of cluster structures in knowledge-intensive services
The aim of this article was to investigate how far clusters in knowledge-intensive service industries have developed and what kind of agglomeration advantages they generate. Therefore the first step was to analyse which knowledge-intensive service industries exhibit spatial concentration. Based on this analysis, the absolute as well as the relative concentrations in these industries was examined at the NUTS 3 level. The results show that cluster structures have developed in some but not all knowledge-intensive industries of the service sector. A high measure of spatial concentration does not necessarily mean that a cluster exists, since especially in less urban region high localisation quotients are frequently ascribed to either one company or only a small number of companies. The knowledge-intensive services with cluster structures differ with regard to external effects, each of which becomes important: a highly qualified labour pool is by definition important for all knowledge-intensive industries of the service sector and fundamental for the existence of cluster structures in each of the examined services. Nevertheless there are however crucial differences regarding the significance of further external effects. Porter-externalities do not appear to stimulate competiveness in any of the examined industries of the service industry. However, none of the available studies explicitly examined the aspect of competition. Thus the interplay of agglomeration advantages needs to be researched further. The type of knowledge and the market environment should also be regarded as important factors (Orsenigo 2006: 201). Contact to local suppliers and customers in industries that are characterized by project work, such as the film and television industry or the media, are particularly important. Supporting clusters and networks is currently fashionable and is practised by different actors. The results show that cluster and network policies have to be focussed on the field of activity. It seems in any case sensible to expand the knowledge and education infrastructure in knowledge-intensive services which do not have cluster structures. The spatial proximity of actors in the innovation process or of suppliers and customers is not always advantageous. Too strong a focus on spatially concentrated exchange processes, leading to an isolation from global trends, can prove to have negative effects in the long term. In this respect the great importance of a qualified labour pool provides a starting point for policy measures that could also be useful for other fields of activity. This includes the development and financing of (partially specialised) educational institutions or measures. The appeal of the surroundings is also important to tie highly qualified staff to a region, as the discussion on a creative class (Florida 2002; 2005) also shows. While factors such as urbanity can hardly be influenced politically, there are certain initiatives regions can adopt to compensate for the lack of attractiveness. In regions where companies find it difficult to attract qualified staff from other regions higher education institutions are important sources of qualified staff. Therefore increasing the attractiveness of higher education institutions and of relevant study programmes are a first starting point. Likewise, the example of ITsax shows how companies can cooperate successfully in the area of recruitment. Furthermore, the provision of childcare facilities or international schools is important for the creation of attractive conditions particularly for women and / or international employees.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Breslauer Straße 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe|
Web page: http://isi.fraunhofer.de/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Erik Stam, 2009. "Cluster Creation," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(2), pages 319-323.
- Gottschalk, Sandra & Janz, Norbert & Peters, Bettina & Rammer, Christian & Schmidt, Tobias, 2002. "Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft: Hintergrundbericht zur Innovationserhebung 2001," ZEW Dokumentationen 02-03, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Michael Storper & Anthony J. Venables, 2004.
"Buzz: face-to-face contact and the urban economy,"
Journal of Economic Geography,
Oxford University Press, vol. 4(4), pages 351-370, August.
- Michael Storper & Anthony J. Venables, 2003. "Buzz: Face-to-Face Contact and the Urban Economy," CEP Discussion Papers dp0598, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Michael Storper & Anthony J. Venables, 2003. "Buzz: face-to-face contact and the urban economy," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20008, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Sternberg Rolf, 2001. "New Economic Geography und Neue regionale Wachstumstheorie aus wirtschaftsgeographischer Sicht," Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, De Gruyter, vol. 45(1), pages 159-180, October.
- Rammer, Christian & Aschhoff, Birgit & Doherr, Thorsten & Köhler, Christian & Peters, Bettina & Schubert, Torben & Schwiebacher, Franz, 2010. "Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft: Indikatorenbericht zur Innovationserhebung 2009," The Annual German Innovation Survey, Key Figures Reports 111707, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Richard Shearmur & David Doloreux, 2009. "Place, Space and Distance: Towards a Geography of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services Innovation," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 79-102.
- Simone Strambach, 2010. "Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS)," Chapters,in: Platforms of Innovation, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:fisifr:r12013. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.